Advertisement

Reclamation of Ravine Lands for Higher Production

  • M. L. Soni
  • V. Subbulakshmi
  • P. S. Renjith
  • J. C. Dagar
  • N. D. Yadava
Chapter

Abstract

Ravine lands are spread over an area of about 4.3 million hectare in India, but their largest incidence (about 72%) is found along the rivers Yamuna, Chambal, Mahi, and Sabarmati and their tributaries in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat states. These are the worst form of land degradation and formed when the vegetal cover is not strong enough to hold and bind the soil together from being carried away by the flowing rainwater. Loss of land due to soil erosion and uncertain crop yield from eroded soil increases the risk to sustain the livelihood of inhabitants of ravine-affected area. According to an estimate, India loses about 3 million tons of food grain due to the formation of ravine lands. These losses can be minimised through adoption of scientific techniques to reclaim and check their further extension. For rehabilitation and controlling the further extension of these lands, integration of soil-water conservation measures with suitable agroforestry systems using fruit trees/shrubs, forage grasses and energy plantations seems viable option. Many species of fruit trees, shrubs, grasses, energy plantations and medicinal use have been identified for their environmental suitability in ravine lands. Using appropriate engineering technology and selecting appropriate species, these lands can improve the livelihood of local inhabitants through production of fodder for animals, fuelwood for energy requirement and food crops and fruits for human consumption. Tree-based technologies have additional environmental benefits. Growing trees with annual crops or pasture grasses help in retaining soil moisture by reducing runof f and simultaneously reduce nutrient leaching losses through root and mycorrhizal systems, regulate biodiversity, improve soil quality and sequester huge amounts of carbon in their biomass. This chapter describes the formation of ravine lands, the ways to reclaim and sustain them through integrated approach of soil-water conservation technologies and agroforestry systems with the emphasis to improve the economic condition and livelihood of the farmers, conserve natural resources and provide ecosystem services under climate change scenario.

References

  1. Agoramoorthy G, Chaudhary S, Hsu MJ (2008) The check dam route to mitigate India’s water shortages. Nat Resour J 48:565–583Google Scholar
  2. Ali (1974) Halt the menace of sloppy lands. Indian Farmers Dig 7(9):31–34Google Scholar
  3. Ben-zhi Z, Mao-yi F, Jin-zhong X, Xiao-sheng Y, Li Z-c (2005) Ecological functions of bamboo forest: research and application. J For Res 16(2):143–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bharadwaj SP (1990–1991) Annual Report. CSWCRTI, Dehradun, pp.41–42Google Scholar
  5. Bhushan LS, Tiwari AK, Mishra PR (1986) Contour trenching – an effective measure to control erosion on sloping lands. In: Proc. National Symposium on problems of arid and semi- arid regions and their remedial measures, Feb. 08–09, 1986, Jodhpur, pp 83–85Google Scholar
  6. CAFRI (2015) Vision 2050. Central Agroforestry Research Institute, JhansiGoogle Scholar
  7. Chaturvedi S, Kaushal R, Tewari S, Dhyani VC (2011) Agroforestry: an integrated land management option for fragile ecosystem. J Funct Environ Bot 1(1):45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chaturvedi OP, Kaushal R, Tomar JMS, Prandiyal AK, Panwar P (2014) Agroforestry for wasteland rehabilitation: mined, ravine, and degraded watershed areas. In: Dagar JC, Singh AK, Arunachalam A (eds) Agroforestry systems in India: livelihood security and ecosystem services, advances in agroforestry vol 10. Springer, New Delhi, pp 233–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chittaranjan S, Patnaik US (1980) Hydrology and engineering. In: Research on soil and water conservation in semi-arid deep black soils. CSWCRTI Research Centre, Bellary, pp 48–76Google Scholar
  10. CSWCRTI (2012a) Final project report (2007–2012) on hydrologic and economic evaluation of bamboo plantations in gullied lands under major ravine systems of India. Central Soil & Water Conservation Research & Training Institute, DehradunGoogle Scholar
  11. CSWCRTI (2012b) Annual report 2011–2012. Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, DehradunGoogle Scholar
  12. Dagar JC (1995) Agroforestry systems for Andamans and Nicobar Islands in India. Int Tree Crops J 8(2–3):107–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dagar JC (2015) Agroforestry for restoration, conservation and resilience of waste/degraded lands: challenges and opportunities. In: Dhyani SK, Newaj R, Alam B, Dev I (eds) Agroforestry: present status and way forward. Biotech Books, New Delhi, pp 323–362Google Scholar
  14. Dagar JC, Mall LP (1980) Studies on the vegetation of ravines and banks of the river Kshipra and its tributaries. J Indian Bot Soc 59:234–245Google Scholar
  15. Dagar JC, Pathak PS (2005) Grassland dynamics and their management. Range Manag Agrofor 26(1):7–31Google Scholar
  16. Das DC (1985) Problem of soil erosion and land degradation in India. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Soil Conservation and Watershed Management, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  17. Deng Y, Peng Y, Wang Y, Yang Z (2003) Soil conservation efficiency of different models converting from steep farming slope plots in yaan, Schian, China. Int J Sediment Res 18(4):340–345Google Scholar
  18. Dhyani SK, Handa AK (2014) Agroforestry in India: current scenario. Indian Farming 63(11):6–8Google Scholar
  19. Dhyani SK, Samra JS, Ajit, Handa AK, Uma (2007) Forestry to support increased agricultural production: focus on employment generation and rural development. Agric Econ Res Rev 20:179–202Google Scholar
  20. Dhyani SK, Newaj R, Sharma AR (2009) Agroforestry: its relationship with agronomy, challenges and opportunities. Indian J Agron 54(3):70–87Google Scholar
  21. Dhyani SK, Handa AK, Uma (2013) Area under agroforestry in India: an assessment for present status and future perspective. Indian J Agrofor 15(1):1–11Google Scholar
  22. Dosskey MG (2002) Setting priorities for research on pollution reduction functions of agricultural buffers. Environ Manag 30:641–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dwivedi RP, Tewari RK, Kareemulla K, Chaturvedi OP, Rai P (2007) Agri-horticultural system for household livelihood – a case study. Indian Res J Ext Edu 7(1):22–26Google Scholar
  24. Ghosh BN (2010) Vegetative barriers for erosion control in Western Himalayan region. Technology Brochure, CSWCRTI, Dehradun, p 8Google Scholar
  25. GoI (1972) Ravine reclamation program for dacoits infested area of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Report of working group on ravine reclamation, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India (GoI), New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  26. Grewal SS (1993) Agroforestry systems for soil and water conservation in Shivalik. In: Agroforestry in 2000 AD for semi-arid and arid tropics, NRC for Agroforestry, Jhansi, India, pp 82–85Google Scholar
  27. ICAR (2017) http://www.icar.org.in/en/node/5101 [Accessed on 20/05/2017]
  28. Jha LK, Lalnunmawia F (2004) Agroforestry with bamboo and ginger to rehabilitate degraded areas in north east India. J Bamboo Rattan 2(2):103–109Google Scholar
  29. Jha P, Mohapatra KP, Dubey SK (2010) Impact of land use on physico-chemical and hydrological properties of ustifluvent soils in riparian zone of river Yamuna, India. Agrofor Syst 80:437–445.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-010-9338-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Joshi PK, Jha AK, Wani SP, Joshi L, Shiyani RL (2005) Comprehensive assessment of watershed management in agriculture: meta-analysis to assess impact of watershed program and people’s participation. Research Report 8. ICRISAT and Asia Development Bank, pp 21Google Scholar
  31. Kar A, Moharana PC, Raina P, Kumar M, Soni ML, Santra P, Ajai, Arya AS, Dhinwa PS (2009) Desertification and its control measures. In: Kar A, Garg BK, Singh MP, Kathju S (eds) Trends in arid zone research in India. Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur, pp 1–47Google Scholar
  32. Korwar GR, Radder GD (1994) Influence of root pruning and cutting interval of Leucaena hedgerows on performance of alley cropped rabi sorghum. Agrofor Syst 25:95–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kurothe RS, Nambiar KTN (2001) Eco-system restoration and sustainable production in degraded Mahi ravines and its effect on hydrology and sedimentation. In: Proc. National Conference on resource conservation and watershed management (RCWM-2001), May 23–25, 2001, DehradunGoogle Scholar
  34. Kurothe RS, Gaur ML, Rao BK, Parandiyal AK, Singh AK (2012) Conservation and production potentials of bamboo in ravine lands. CSWCRTI., ISBN 978-81-924172-1-9, Dehradun, p 160Google Scholar
  35. Lawler DM (1993) The measurement of river bank erosion & lateral channel change: a review. Earth Surf Process Landf 18:777–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ministry of Agriculture (1984) Report of the working group on reclamation and development of ravines for formulation of the five-year plan. Government of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  37. Mishra PK, Rao BK (2012) Hydrologic and economic evaluation of bamboo plantations in gullied lands under major ravine systems of India. Final Project Report of National Bamboo Mission Sponsored Research & Development Project (2007–2012). National Bamboo Mission, Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Ministry of Agri., Govt. of India, Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi. Available at http://nbm.nic.in/Reports/Report-4.pdf
  38. Mishra PK, Tripathi KP (2013) Soil and water conservation research for land management in India. Indian J Dryland Agric Res Dev 28(1):01–18Google Scholar
  39. NAAS (2009) State of Indian Agriculture. National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS), New Delhi, p 256Google Scholar
  40. Nair PKR (1993) An introduction to agroforestry. Kluwer Academic publisher with cooperation ICRAF Dordrecht, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nair PKR (2008) Agroecosystem management in the 21st century: it is time for a paradigm shift. J Trop Agric 46:1–12. Florida, USAGoogle Scholar
  42. Nair PKR, Buresh RJ, Mugendi DN, Latt CR (1999) Nutrient cycling in tropical agroforestry systems: myths and science. In: Buck LE, Lassoie JP, Fernandes EC (eds) Agroforestry in sustainable agricultural system. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 1–31Google Scholar
  43. Narain P, Verma B, Singhal AK (1979) Studies of soils of Chambal with regard to their erodibility. Ind J Soil Conserv 7(2):37–42Google Scholar
  44. National Commission on Agriculture (1976) Report of the National Commission on Agriculture, Part 5, Resource Development. Government of India, New Delhi, pp 107–322Google Scholar
  45. NRCAF (2013) Vision 2050. National Research Centre for Agroforestry, JhansiGoogle Scholar
  46. Pande VC, Kurothe RS, Rao BK, Kumar G, Parandiyal AK, Singh AK, Kumar A (2012) Economic analysis of bamboo plantation in three major ravine systems of India. Agric Econ Res Rev 25(1):63–73Google Scholar
  47. Pande VC, Kurothe RS, Singh HB, Tiwari SP (2014) A case study on agri-horticulture production system for income and environmental security in Mahi ravine lands of Gujarat. In: Verma KS, Panwar P, Kaushal R, Chuhan S, Chander J, Chandel RS (eds) ISTS-IUFRO Conference on “Sustainable Resource Management for Climate Change Mitigation and Social Security” March 13–15, 2014. pp. 30Google Scholar
  48. Pani P (2016) Controlling gully erosion: an analysis of land reclamation processes in Chambal Valley, India. Dev Pract 26(8):1047–1059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pani P, Mohapatra SN (2001) Delineation and monitoring of gullied and ravenous lands in a part of lower Chambal valley, India, using Remote Sensing and GIS – a research paper published in the proceedings of ACRS 2001 – 22nd Asian conference on remote sensing, 5–9 November 2001, Singapore, vol 1, pp 671–675Google Scholar
  50. Pani P, Mishra DK, Mohapatra SN (2011) Land degradation and livelihoods in semiarid India: a study of farmers’ perceptions in Chambal Valley. Asian Profile 39(5):505–519Google Scholar
  51. Parandiyal AK, Kumar A, Prasad A, Singh KD (2006) Studies of tree crop association under boundary plantation system in southern Rajasthan. Paper in National Symposium for livelihood security, environmental protection and biofuel production. NRC Agroforestry, Jhansi, December 16–18, 2006Google Scholar
  52. Prajapati MC, Joshie P, Rathore BL, Dubey LN (1982) Surface water management for grass and tree land development in ravenous watersheds – a case study. Ind J Soil Conserv 10(2/3):30–38Google Scholar
  53. Prajapati MC, Nambiar KTN, Singh JP, Malhotra BM, Sharda VN (1989) Effect of goat grazing on vegetation, runoff and soil loss in a stabilized watershed vis-à-vis animal growth. Indian J Soil Conserv 17(1):9–16Google Scholar
  54. Prajapati MC, Tiwari AK, Nambiar KTN, Puri DN, Singh JP, Malhotra BM (1993) Fuel and fodder production in Yamuna ravines at Agra. Ind J Soil Conserv 21(3):8–13Google Scholar
  55. Prakash C, Raizada A, Samra JS, Sastry G (1999) Vegetative barriers for resource conservation. Bulletin No. T-41/D-29. CSWCRTI, DehradunGoogle Scholar
  56. Prakash O, Dubey RK, Dubey SK, Deshwal JS (2011) Evaluation of Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) based agri-horti systems under various tree root management practices on reclaimed Yamuna ravines. Ind J Soil Conserv 39(1):59–62Google Scholar
  57. Prasad A (1994a) Alley cropping in Leucaena leucocephala with field crops for sustained productivity. In: Proceedings international conference on sustainable development of degraded lands through agroforestry in Asia and Pacific, New Delhi, vol I, pp 471–478Google Scholar
  58. Prasad A (1994b) Shelterbelt of Leucaena and its effect on crop yield in rainfed agroforestry system. In: Proceedings international conference on sustainable development of degraded lands through agroforestry in Asia and Pacific, New Delhi, vol I, pp 499–506Google Scholar
  59. Rao MR, Schroth G, Williams SE, Namirembe S, Schaller M, Wilson J (2004) Managing below-ground interactions in agro-ecosystems. In: van Noordwijk M, Cadisch G, Ong CK (eds) Below-ground interactions in tropical agro-ecosystems: concepts and models with multiple plant components. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp 309–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rao BK, Kurothe RS, Singh AK, Parandiyal AK, Pande VC, Kumar G (2012). Bamboo plantation based technological interventions for reclamation and productive utilization of ravine lands. CSWCRTI, T-62/V-4, pp 30Google Scholar
  61. Saha R, Tomar JMS, Gosh PK (2007) Evaluation and selection of multipurpose tree for comparing soil hydro-physical behaviour under hilly ecosystem of north east India. Agrofor Syst 69:239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Samra JS, Chandra Prakash Sastry G, Raizada A (2004) Technical manual on contour trenching for rehabilitation of degraded lands. Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Dehradun, p 60Google Scholar
  63. Sethy BK, Parandiyal AK, Shakir A, Ashok K, Singh RK (2010) Cost effective conservation measures for management of medium and deep ravenous lands. Annual Report. CSWCRTI, Dehradun, pp 73–74Google Scholar
  64. Shanmughavel P, Francis K (2001) Intercropping trials of four crops in plantations. J Bamboo Rattan 1(1):3–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sharda VN, Venkateswarlu B (2007) Crop diversification and alternate land use systems in watershed management. In: Best-bet options for integrated watershed management. Proceedings of the comprehensive assessment of watershed programs in India, 25–27 July 2007, ICRISAT, Patancheru, pp 111–128Google Scholar
  66. Sharda VN, Bhushan LS, Raghuveer (1982) Hydrological behaviour of ravinous watersheds under different land uses. In: International symposium on hydrological aspects of mountainous watersheds. University of Roorkee, Roorkee, pp 14–18Google Scholar
  67. Sharda VN, Juyal GP, Naik BS (2008) Watershed development in India: status and perspective. Allied Printers, Dehradun, p 219Google Scholar
  68. Sharma AK, Pradhan IP, Nema JP, Tejwani KG (1980) 25 years research on soil & water conservation in ravine lands of Gujarat. CSWCRTI Research Centre, VasadGoogle Scholar
  69. Sharma BD, Hore DK, Pandey G, Wadhwa BM (1992) Genetic resources of bamboos in the NE region of India. Indian J For 15(1):44–51Google Scholar
  70. Sheshadri P (1985) Intercropping of bamboo (D. strictus) with soybean- an agroforestry study. Ph.D thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, p 480Google Scholar
  71. Sikka AK, Mishra PK, Singh RK, Krishna BK, Islam A (2016) Management of ravines for food, livelihood and environment security. In: Souvenir-Global ravine conference on managing ravines for food and livelihood security. RVSKVV, Gwalior, India, March 7–10, 2016, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  72. Singh G (2009) Soil water dynamics, growth of Dendrocalamus strictus and herbage productivity influenced by rainwater harvesting in Aravalli hills of Rajasthan. For Ecol Manag 258:2519–2528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Singh RA (2011) Rain water management with three tier systems in ravines affected area of Bundelkhand. Ind J Soil Conserv 39(1):14–19Google Scholar
  74. Singh A, Dayal R (1975) Development of water resource in ravine utilization -a case study. Soil Conserv Dig 3(1):26–30Google Scholar
  75. Singh AK, Kala S, Dubey SK, Rao BK, Gaur ML, Mohapatra KP, Prasad B (2014) Evaluation of bamboo based conservation measures for rehabilitation of degraded Yamuna ravines. Ind J Soil Conserv 42(1):80–84Google Scholar
  76. Singh AK, Kala S, Dubey SK, Pande VC, Rao BK, Sharma KK, Mohapatra KP (2015) Technology for rehabilitation of Yamuna ravines – cost-effective practices to conserve natural resources through bamboo plantation. Curr Sci 108(8):1527–1533Google Scholar
  77. Swaminathan MS (1987) The promise of agroforestry for ecological and nutritional security. In: Steppler HW, Nair PKR (eds) Agroforestry: a decade of development. ICRAF, Nairobi, p 30Google Scholar
  78. Tariyal K, Upadhyay A, Tewari S, Melkania U (2013) Plant and soil carbon stock and carbon sequestration potential in four major bamboo species of North India. J Adv Lab Res Biol 4(3):90–98Google Scholar
  79. Tejwani KG, Bhardwaj SP (1982) Soil and water conservation research in India, Part II, Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Soil Science, New Delhi, pp 608–21Google Scholar
  80. Tejwani KG, Gupta SK, Mathur HN (1975) Soil and water conservation research 1956–71. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  81. Thomas M, Sahu P, Shrivastava A, Hussain Z (2011) Biodiversity and livelihood options of people in Chambal ravine of Morena district, Madhya Pradesh, India. J Trop For 27(3):40–56Google Scholar
  82. Tiwari SP, Kurothe RS (2006) Effect of vegetative barriers on soil and nutrients losses at 2% slope on agricultural lands of reclaimed Mahi ravines. Ind J Soil Conserv 34(1):37–41Google Scholar
  83. Uthappa AR, Chavan SB, Singh M, Sridhar KB, Dev I, Ram A, Sathish BN, Kumar M, Dwivedi RP, Singh R, Singh RK, Singh R, Tewari RK, Handa AK, Chaturvedi OP (2016) Tree diversity in ravines and their rehabilitation through agroforestry interventions in Bundelkhand Region of India. Indian J Agrofor 18(1):77–83Google Scholar
  84. Venkatesh MS, Bhatt BP, Kumar K, Majumdar B, Singh K (2005) Soil properties influenced by some important edible bamboo species in the north-eastern Himalayan region, India. J Bamboo Rattan 4(3):221–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Verma B, Singh B, Saraf NH, Monappa K (1969) Suitability and economics of grasses for reclamation and stabilization of Mahi ravines in Gujarat. Indian For 95(1):33–44Google Scholar
  86. Verma B, Chinamani S, Bhola SN, Rao DH, Prasad SN, Prakash C (1986) Twenty-five years of research on soil and water conservation in ravine lands of Rajasthan. Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute Publication, Research Centre, Kota, pp 1–215Google Scholar
  87. Wajja-Musukwe TN, Wilson J, Sprent J, Ong CK, Deans DJ, Okorio J (2008) Tree growth and management in Ugandan agroforestry systems: effect of root pruning on tree growth and crop yield. Tree Physiol 28:233–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Yadava PS, Thokchom A (2015) Carbon sequestration potential of the forests of North Eastern India. In: Goel M, Sudhakar M, Shahi RV (eds) Carbon capture, storage and utilization: a possible climate change solution for energy industry. TERI Publishers, New Delhi, pp 149–165Google Scholar
  89. YanHui W, Yongmin L (1995) Hydrological characteristics of a moso-bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forest in South China. Hydrol Process 9(7):797–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Young A, Cheatle RJ, Muraya P (1986) The potential of agroforestry for soil conservation. Part III. Soil changes under agroforestry (SCUAF): a predictive model. ICRAF Working Paper 44. ICRAF, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  91. Zhang CS, Xie GD, Fan SH, Zhen L (2010) Variation in vegetation structure and soil properties and the relation between understory plants and environmental variables under different Phyllostachys pubescens forests in Southeastern China. Environ Manag 45:779–792.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02857909 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zheng YS, Hong W (1998) Management of Phyllostachys pubescens stand Xiamen. Xiamen University Publishing HouseGoogle Scholar
  93. Zhihua T, Lihua C, Xinxiao Y, Yushan Z (2013) Effect of bamboo plantation on rhizosphere soil enzyme and microbial activities in coastal ecosystem. J Food Agric Environ 11(3&4):2333–2338Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. L. Soni
    • 1
  • V. Subbulakshmi
    • 1
  • P. S. Renjith
    • 1
  • J. C. Dagar
    • 2
  • N. D. Yadava
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR-Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Regional Research StationBikanerIndia
  2. 2.Indian Council of Agricultural SciencesPusaIndia

Personalised recommendations