• Ling-Lei Kong
  • Jin-Hua Wang
  • Guan-Hua DuEmail author


Morphine is extracted from poppy, which is the most important alkaloid in opium. Morphine has a strong analgesic effect, especially for moderate and severe cancer pain. However, morphine has serious side effects, such as addiction, respiratory depression, acute poisoning, and death. Therefore, in regulating the clinical application of morphine, it is necessary to explore the alternative to morphine with strong analgesic role and minor side effects. In the long history of morphine R&D, there are many opioid drugs to be found and they make great contributions for the treatment of pain and human disease. Therefore, it is the ultimate goal to develop new drugs by applying advanced technology and protect human health, as far as possible to reduce possible harm.


Morphine Alkaloid Analgesic Addiction 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and People's Medical Publishing House, PR of China 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Targets Identification and Drug Screening, Centre for Pharmaceutical ScreeningInstitute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical CollegeBeijingChina

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