• Jin-Hua Wang
  • Xiu-Ying Yang
  • Guan-Hua DuEmail author


Ephedrine, also called ephedrine ingot, L-ephedrine, is from dry grass stems of ephedra plants such as ephedra, Zhong ephedra, and Equisetum ephedra. Ephedrine is a white needle-like crystal or crystalline powder and odorless. It is soluble in water and can be dissolved in ethanol but is insoluble in chloroform or ether. Dosage forms of ephedrine are mainly tablets, injections, and eye drops, and they were used widely in clinical practice. Ephedrine was first isolated from the herb “Shuanghui Ephedra” in 1885. Ephedrine was successfully synthesized in 1920. In 1926, ephedrine was approved in clinical practice by the FDA of the United States. Structure of ephedrine was defined in 1926. Ephedrine hydrochloride was used for the treatment of bronchial asthma, hypotension, and central excitation. The side effects of ephedrine hydrochloride are anxiety, insomnia, palpitations, sweating, and other symptoms. Ephedrine is rarely used for asthma treatment now.


Ephedrine Asthma Drug tolerance Addiction 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and People's Medical Publishing House, PR of China 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Targets Identification and Drug Screening, National Centre for Pharmaceutical ScreeningInstitute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical CollegeBeijingChina

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