Introduction to Artemia Culture

  • T. Veeramani
  • P. Santhanam
  • N. Manickam
  • C. Rajthilak


Artemia, the brine shrimp, is an excellent live food for cultivable aquatic species. It is in great demand for use in shrimp hatcheries, fish hatcheries and ornamental fish culture farms. The genus Artemia (Leach 1819) is a cosmopolitan taxon that has typically adapted to live in the stressful environmental conditions of higher saline habitats, such as salt lakes, lagoons and solar salt works all over the world (Vanhaecke et al. 1987; Triantaphylidis et al. 1998). Artemia populations have been identified in about 600 natural salt lakes and salt works along the coastlines of tropical, subtropical and temperate regions, and further survey efforts are being conducted to identify more Artemia biotopes (Bossier et al. 2004). Artemia franciscana is native to North, Central and South America (Bowen et al. 1985), while other Artemia species include Artemia persimilis in South America (Gajardo et al. 1999), Artemia salina in the Mediterranean Sea (Gajardo et al. 1999), Artemia urmiana in Lake Urmia, Iran (Triantaphyllidis et al. 1997; Manaffar 2012), Artemia sinica in China (Naihong et al. 2000), Artemia tibetiana in Tibet (Naihong et al. 2000) and Artemia sp. in Kazakhstan (Pilla and Beardmore 1994). Artemia has been introduced in Brazil, Australia (Geddes 1980), the Philippines, Thailand (Tarnchalanukit and Wongrat 1987), India, Sri Lanka (Hoa et al. 2007) and Vietnam (Baert et al. 1997). Artemia can withstand habitats whose salinity levels range from 10 to 340 g L−1, with fluctuating ionic compositions and temperatures (Van Stappen 2002). Artemia franciscana is a native strain from America, originating in the San Francisco Bay, California and the Great Salt Lake, Utah (Persoone and Sorgeloos 1980).



The authors are thankful to the Head of the Department of Marine Science and authorities of Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli-24, Tamil Nadu, India, for providing the necessary facilities. One of the authors (TV) thanks the University Grants Commission, Govt. of India, New Delhi, for the Post-Doctoral Fellowship (ref. no./PDFSS-2014-15-SC-TAM-8547; dated 05.02.2015). The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) is gratefully acknowledge for the financial support to establish the microalgae culture facility through extramural project (BT/PR 5856/AAQ/3/598/2012).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Veeramani
    • 1
  • P. Santhanam
    • 1
  • N. Manickam
    • 1
  • C. Rajthilak
    • 2
  1. 1.Marine Planktonology and Aquaculture Lab., Department of Marine Science, School of Marine SciencesBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia
  2. 2.Department of Oceanography and Coastal Area Studies, School of Marine SciencesAlagappa UniversityThondi CampusIndia

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