A Technique on the Culture and Preservation of Marine Copepod Eggs

  • M. Kaviyarasan
  • P. Santhanam


The search for the ideal copepod for marine fish larvae that can be cultured intensively is ongoing. Copepods are nutritionally suitable for marine fish larvae (Sargent et al. 1997; Stottrup 2000) and constitute a large percentage of the diet in the natural environment (Hunter 1981; Munk and Nielson 1994). Moreover copepods are way too higher in nutritional composition when compared to the traditional live feeds such as Artemia nauplii and rotifers. But it is difficult to culture copepod at sufficient densities to be economically efficient on a commercial scale, because they require high water volumes for cultivation in captivity (Esmaeili et al. 2011). Even though more than 12,000 species of copepods have been identified and classified (Humes 1994), a few species only are being cultured for the purpose of rearing fish larvae. Out of ten orders of copepods, only three orders, viz., Calanoida, Harpacticoida, and Cyclopoida, are being cultured widely around the world. Among these, the calanoid species receives much attention due to their abundance in pelagic waters and ease of culture in controlled environments. Apart from this, many calanoid copepods are capable of releasing free eggs unlike the cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepods which release their nauplii from the egg sacs itself. The production of diapause eggs has been recorded in many calanoid species during abnormal environmental conditions. These diapause eggs can undergo a long period of metabolic arrest until the environment turns to favorable conditions. This fact aids in the storage of diapause eggs for a longer period and could be used for culture when needed.



The authors thank the authorities of Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli-24, for the facility provided. The authors are indebted to Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Govt. of India, New Delhi, for providing copepod culture facility through extramural project (BT/PR 5856/AAQ/3/598/2012).


  1. Albertsson, J., and K. Leonardsson. 2000. Impact of a burrowing deposit-feeder, Monoporeia affinis, on viable zooplankton resting eggs in the northern Baltic Sea. Marine Biology. 136 (61): 1–619.Google Scholar
  2. Belmonte, G. 1992. Diapause egg production in Acartia (ParacaHia) lafisefosa (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida). 5011. Zoo/ 59: 363–366.Google Scholar
  3. ———. 1997. Resting eggs in the life cycle of Acartia italica and A. adriatica (Copepoda, Calanoida, Acartiidae). Crustaceana 70 (1): 1411–1417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Belmonte, G., and M. Puce. 1994. Morphological aspects of subitaneous and resting eggs frorn Acarfia josephinae (Calanoida). Hydrobiologia 2921293: 131–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Castellani, C., and I.A.N. Lucas. 2003. Seasonal variation in egg rnorphology and hatching success in the calanoid copepods Ternora longicornis, Acartia clausi and Centropages hamatus. Journal of Plankton Research. 25: 527–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Castro-Longoria, E. 1999. The production of subitaneous and diapause eggs: a reproductive strategy for Acartia bifilosa (Copepods: Calanoida) in Southampton Water, UK. Journal of Plankton Research 21 (1): 65–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Castro-Longoria, E. 2001. Cornparative observations on the external morphology of subitaneous and diapause eggs of Acartia species frorn Southampton Water. Crustaceana 74 (3): 225–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Champeau, A. 1970. ßecherche sur l’ecologie et l’adaptafion a la vie latente des copepodes des eaux temporaires provencales et corses. These Doctorat des Sciences, Universite AixMarseille.Google Scholar
  9. Chen, F., and S.-J. Li. 1991. On seasonal distribution and diapause eggs in Tortanus from Xiamen waters. Acta Oceanologica Sinica 13: 721–727.Google Scholar
  10. Chen, F., and N.H. Marcus. 1997. Subitaneous, diapause, and delayed-hatching eggs of planktonic copepods from the northern Gulf of Mexico:morphology and hatching success. Marine Biology 127 (4): 587–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Drillet, G., 2010. Copepods and Their Resting Eggs, a Potential Source of Nauplii for Aquaculture. Ph.D., Thesis. Roskilde University, Denmark: National Institute of Aquatic Resources. 170 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Drillet, G., L.C. Lindley, A. Michels, J. Wilcox, and N.H. Marcus. 2007. Improving cold storage of subitaneous eggs of the copepod Acartia tonsa Dana from the Gulf of Mexico(Florida – USA). Aquaculture Research 38: 457–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Drillet, G., Benni W. Hansen, and T. Kiørboe. 2011. Resting egg production induced by food limitation in the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. Limnology and Oceanography 56 (6): 2064–2070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Drillet, G., M.H. Iversen, T.F. Sørensen, H. Ramløv, T. Lund, and B.W. Hansen. 2005. Effect of cold storage upon eggs of a calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa (Dana) and their offspring. Aquaculture 254: 714–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Esmaeili, A., and H. Amiri. 2011. The in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Tanacetum pinnatumboiss. grown in Iran. Bulgarian Chemical Communications 43 (4): 532–537.Google Scholar
  16. Francisco Guerrero, Valeriano Rodriguez. (1998). Existence and significance of resting eggs (Copepoda: Calanoida) in sediments of a coastal station in the Alboran Sea (SE Spain) . Journal of Plankton Research, 20 (2):305–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grice, G.D., and V.R. Gibson. 1977. Resting Eggs in (Copepoda: Calanoida). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 34 (3): 410–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grice, G.D., and V.R. Gibson. 1981. Hatching of eggs of Pontella mediterranea Claus (Copepoda: Calanoida). Vie Milieu 31: 49–51.Google Scholar
  19. Gwo, J., and C. Lin. 1998. Preliminary experiments on the cryopreservation of penaeid shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) embryos, nauplii, and zoea. Theriogenology 49: 1289–1299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hagemann, Andreas. 2011a. Cold storage of eggs of Acartia tonsa Dana: Effects of light, salinity and short-term temperature elevation on 48-h egg hatching success. Trondheim: Norwegian University of Science and Technology.Google Scholar
  21. Hagemann, A. 2011b. Cold storage of eggs of Acartia tonsa Dana: Effects of light, salinity and short-term temperature elevation on 48-h egg hatching success. Ph.D., thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Biology, Norway, 58.Google Scholar
  22. Hall, Catherine J., and Carolyn W. Burns. 2001. Hatching of (Copepoda: Calanoida) resting eggs from sediments of a tidally influenced lake . New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 35 (2): 235–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Holmstrup, M., J. Overgaard, T.F. Sørensen, G. Drillet, B.W. Hansen, H. Ramløv, and K. Engell-Sørensen. 2006. Influence of storage conditions on viability of quiescent copepod eggs (Acartia tonsa Dana): Effects of temperature, salinity and anoxia. Aquaculture Research 37: 625–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Humes, A., 1994. How many copepods? In Ecology and Morphology of Copepods: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Copepoda. Volume 292/ 293. Edited by: Ferrari FD, Bradley BP. London: Springer; 1–7, Developments in Hydrobiology.Google Scholar
  25. Hunter, J.R. 1981. Feeding ecology and predation of marine fish larvae. In Marine fish larvae. Morphology, ecology and relation to fisheries, ed. R. Lasker, 33–77. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  26. Johnson, J.K. 1980. Effects of temperature and salinity on production and hatching of dormant eggs of Acartia californiensis (Copepoda) in an Oregon estuary. Fisheries Bulletin 77: 567–584.Google Scholar
  27. Kasahara, S., S. Uye, and T. Onbe. 1974. Calanoid copepod eggs in sea-bottorn rnuds. Marine Biology 26 (167-1): 71.Google Scholar
  28. Katajisto, T., M. Viitasalo, and M. Koski. 1998. Seasonal occurrence and hatching of calanoid eggs in sediments of the northern Baltic Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 163: 133–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lanora, A., and L. Santella. 1991. Diapause embryos in the neustonic copepod Anomalocera patersoni. Marine Biology 108: 387–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lawson, Thomas J., and George D. Grice. 1976. Resting Eggs in the Marine Calanoid Copepod Labidocera Aestiva Wheeler. Crustaceana 30 (1): 9–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lindley, J.A. 1990. Distribution of overwintering calanoid copepod eggs in sea-bed sediments around southern Britain. Marine Biology 104 (2): 209–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Madhupratap, M., S. Nehring, and J. Lenz. 1996. Resting eggs of zooplankton (Copepoda and Cladocera) from the Kiel Bay and adjacent waters (southwestern Baltic). Marine Biology 125 (1): 77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Marcus, N.H. (1989). Abundance in bottom sediments arid hatching requirements of eggs of Centropages hamatus (Copepoda: Calanoida) from the Alligator Harbor region, Florida. Biological Bulletin, 176 (142-1): 46.Google Scholar
  34. ———. 1990. Calanoid copepod, cladoceran, and rotifer eggs in sea-bottom sediments of northern Californian coastal waters: Identification, occurrence and hatching. Marine Biology 105 (3): 413–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Marcus, N.H. 1996. Ecological and evolutionary significance of resting eggs in marine copepods: past, present, and future studies. Hydrobiologia 320 (1-3): 141–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marcus, N.H., Robert Lutz, William Burnett, and Peter Cable. 1994. Age, viability, and vertical distribution of zooplankton resting eggs from an anoxic basin: Evidence of an egg bank. Limnology and Oceanography 39 (1): 154–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Marcus Engel, 2005. Calanoid copepod resting eggs – a safeguard against adverse environmental conditions in the German Bight and the Kara Sea? Berichte zur Polarforschung 508: 108.Google Scholar
  38. Marcus, N.H., and Jeffrey A. Wilcox. 2007. A guide to the meso-scale production of the copepod Acartia tonsa. Technical publication – Florida Sea Grant College Program, 1–29.Google Scholar
  39. Munk, Peter, and Torkel Gissel Nielsen. 1994. Trophodynamics of the plankton community at Dogger Bank: predatory impact by larval fish. Journal of Plankton Research16 (9): 1225–1245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Naess, T. 1996. Benthic resting eggs of calanoid copepods in Norwegian enclosures used in mariculture: abundance, species composition and hatching. Hydrobiologia 320 (1–3): 161–168.Google Scholar
  41. Newton, Gina M., and Brad D. Mitchell. 1999. Egg dormancy in the Australian estuarine-endemic copepods Gippslandia estuarina and Sulcanus conflictus, with reference to dormancy of other estuarine fauna. Marine and Freshwater Research 50 (5): 441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ohs, C.L., A.L. Rhyne, and E. Stenn. 2009. Viability of subitaneous eggs of the copepod, Acartia tonsa (Dana), following exposure to various cryoprotectants and hypersaline water. Aquaculture 287: 114–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Perzova, N.M. 1974. Life cycle and ecology of a thermophilus copepod, Centropages hamatus in the White Sea. Zool. Zh. 53: 1013–1022.Google Scholar
  44. Santella, L., and A. Ianora. 1990. Subitaneous and diapause eggs in Mediterranean populations of Pontella mediterranea (Copepoda: Calanoida): A morphological study. Marine Biology 105 (1): 83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sargent, J.R., L.A. McEvoy, and J.G. Bell. 1997. Requirements, presentation and sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids in marine fish larval feeds. Aquaculture 155: 117–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sazhina, L.I. 1968. On hibernating eggs of marine Calanoida. Zool. Zh. 47: 1554–1556.Google Scholar
  47. Stottrup, J.G. 2000. The elusive copepods: Their production and suitability in marine aquaculture. Aquaculture Research 31: 703–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Suderman, Barbara L., and Nancy H. Marcus. 2002. The effects of Orimulsion and Fuel Oil #6 on the hatching success of copepod resting eggs in the seabed of Tampa Bay, Florida. Environmental Pollution 120 (3): 787–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sullivan, B.K., and L.T. McManus. 1986. Factors controlling seasonal succession of the copepods Acartia hudsonica and A. tonsa in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island: temperature and resting egg production. Marine Ecology Progress Series 28: 121–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Uye, S., and A. Fleminger. 1976. Effects of various environmental factors on egg development of several species of Acartia in Southern California. Marine Biology 38 (3): 253–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Uye, S., S. Kasahara, and T. Onbo. 1979. Calanoid copepod eggs in sea-bottom muds. IV. Effects of some environmental factors on the hatching of resting eggs. Marine Biology 51 (2): 151–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Uye, S. 1980. Development of neritic copepods Acarfia clausi and A. steuri. I. Some environrnental factors affecting egg development and the nature of resting eggs. Bulletin of Plankton Society of Japan 27: 1–9.Google Scholar
  53. ———. 1985. Resting egg production as a life history strategy of marine planktonic copepods. Bulletin of Marine Science 37: 440–449.Google Scholar
  54. Vuthiphandchai, Verapong, Boonprasert Pengpun, and Subuntith Nimrat. 2005. Effects of cryoprotectant toxicity and temperature sensitivity on the embryos of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Aquaculture 246 (1-4): 275–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Kaviyarasan
    • 1
  • P. Santhanam
    • 1
  1. 1.Marine Planktonology & Aquaculture Laboratory, Department of Marine Science, School of Marine SciencesBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia

Personalised recommendations