Magnetic Resonance in Studying Cells, Biotechnology Dispersions, Fibers and Collagen Based Tissues for Biomedical Engineering

Chapter

Abstract

The chapter considers the achievements of NMR for biomedical engineering and estimates development of these methods to unveil the details of processes associated with recovering cells and tissues. NMR methods give the information about translational dynamics of molecules and macromolecules in complex systems including natural porous biosystems in different physicochemical environment. NMR relaxation, pulse field gradient (PFG) NMR in one- and two-dimensional realisations, and double-quantum-filtered (DQF) NMR techniques are analysed with brief theory and the examples in studying normal and disease state of cells and tissues, regulation of cell processes and monitoring changes in the cell/tissue microstructure. NMR & MRI methods are the leading non-invasive characterization tools, which can provide different MR parameters in studying the properties of tissue-engineered constructions. DQF NMR technique collects the information about local and macroscopic order in heterogeneous systems and it is effectively applied in the tissues with anisotropic motion of molecules. It is considered how DQF NMR has been applied to study collagen tissues with different quantity of covalent intermolecular cross-links. The apparent diffusion coefficient (Dapp) could be applied in studying biomedical engineering applications. The change in Dapp and NMR relaxation parameters (T1, T2) correlated well with the growth of engineered tissues. A restricted distance and permeability coefficient could be monitored as important MR parameters of fibers and tissue characteristics. Various classes of nanoparticles applied for drug delivery and other destinations in biotechnology have been studied effectively by NMR techniques on different nuclei. Hopefully the material of the chapter can help to establish a bridge between researchers specialised in particular MR techniques and cell and tissue engineers.

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Organic Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University LinzLinzAustria

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