Advertisement

Recent Advancements in After-Treatment Technology for Internal Combustion Engines—An Overview

  • Gaurav Tripathi
  • Atul DharEmail author
  • Amsini Sadiki
Chapter
Part of the Energy, Environment, and Sustainability book series (ENENSU)

Abstract

The increasing health problems due to engine exhaust and tightening of emission norms for engine exhaust force us to use exhaust after-treatment techniques. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, unburnt hydrocarbon, particulate matter, and oxides of nitrogen are main automobile engine exhaust emissions. Most commonly, diesel oxidation catalysis effectively reduces unburnt hydrocarbon emission, diesel particulate filter reduces particulate matter emission, and selective catalytic reduction and NO x trap technology reduce NO x emissions. Recent advances include reduction with and without filter, reduction with catalyst and without catalyst, and some other after-treatment techniques such as plasma-assisted techniques, NO x and soot combined reduction. This chapter provides overview of recent advancement in various after-treatment techniques and challenges of these technologies.

Keywords

Exhaust after-treatment technology Selective catalytic reduction Emissions DPF DOC 

References

  1. 1.
    Majewski WA, Khair MK (2006) Diesel emissions and their control, vol 303. SAE Technical PaperGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Reşitoğlu İA, Altinişik K, Keskin A (2015) The pollutant emissions from diesel-engine vehicles and exhaust aftertreatment systems. Clean Technol Environ Policy 17(1):15–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Heywood JB (1988) Internal combustion engine fundamentals, vol 930. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hill SC, Smoot LD (2000) Modeling of nitrogen oxides formation and destruction in combustion systems. Prog Energy Combust Sci 26(4):417–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee T, Park J, Kwon S, Lee J, Kim J (2013) Variability in operation-based NOx emission factors with different test routes, and its effects on the real-driving emissions of light diesel vehicles. Sci Total Environ 461:377–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Flynn PF, Durrett RP, Hunter GL, zur Loye AO, Akinyemi OC, Dec JE, Westbrook CK (1999) Diesel combustion: an integrated view combining laser diagnostics, chemical kinetics, and empirical validation (No. 1999-01-0509). SAE Technical PaperGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Puchkarev V, Kharlov A, Gundersen M, Roth G (1999). Application of pulsed corona discharge to diesel exhaust remediation. In: 12th IEEE international conference on pulsed power, 1999. Digest of technical papers, vol 1. IEEE, pp 511–514Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Talebizadeh P, Babaie M, Brown R, Rahimzadeh H, Ristovski Z, Arai M (2014) The role of non-thermal plasma technique in NOx treatment: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 40:886–901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hoard J (2001) Plasma-catalysis for diesel exhaust treatment: current state of the art (No. 2001-01-0185). SAE Technical PaperGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Matsumoto T, Wang D, Namihira T, Akiyama H (2012) Non-thermal plasma technic for air pollution control. In: air pollution-a comprehensive perspective. InTechGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Scholtz V, Pazlarova J, Souskova H, Khun J, Julak J (2015) Nonthermal plasma—a tool for decontamination and disinfection. Biotechnol Adv 33(6):1108–1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Penetrante BM, Vogtlin GE, Bardsley JN, Vitello PA, Wallman PH (1993). Application of non-thermal plasmas to pollution control. In: Proceedings of 2nd international Plasma symposium. World progress in plasma applications, Palo Alto, California, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shelef M (1995) Selective catalytic reduction of NOx with N-free reductants. Chem Rev 95(1):209–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Twigg MV (2011) Catalytic control of emissions from cars. Catal Today 163(1):33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Azzara A, Rutherford D, Wang H (2014) Feasibility of IMO annex VI tier III implementation using selective catalytic reduction. International Council on Clean TransportationGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cichanowicz JE (2010) Current capital cost and cost-effectiveness of power plant emissions control technologies. Utility Air Regulatory GroupGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sorrels JL, Randall DD, Schaffner KS, Fry CR (2015) Selective catalytic reductionGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    USA Env. Protection Agency. Air pollution control technology fact sheet, EPA—452/F-03-032Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Skalska K, Miller JS, Ledakowicz S (2010) Trends in NOx abatement: a review. Sci Total Environ 408(19):3976–3989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Johnson JH, Parker GG (2013) Experimental studies for DPF and SCR model, control system, and OBD development for engines using diesel and biodiesel fuels. Michigan Technological UniversityGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gekas I, Gabrielsson P, Johansen K, Bjørn I, Kjær JH, Reczek W, Cartellieri W (2002) Performance of a urea SCR system combined with a PM and fuel optimized heavy-duty diesel engine able to achieve the Euro V emission limits (No. 2002-01-2885). SAE Technical PaperGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Guan B, Zhan R, Lin H, Huang Z (2014) Review of state of the art technologies of selective catalytic reduction of NOx from diesel engine exhaust. Appl Therm Eng 66(1):395–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cîmpean M (2015) Catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides from the residual gases of the 15 N separation column. Babes-Bolyai UniversityGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Burch R, Ottery D (1996) Selective catalytic reduction of NOx by hydrocarbons on Pt/Al2O3 catalysts at low temperatures without the formation of N2O. Appl Catal B 9(1–4):L19–L24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sultana A, Haneda M, Hamada H (2009) A new concept of combined NH3–CO-SCR system for efficient NO reduction in excess oxygen. Appl Catal B 88(1):180–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dhainaut F, Pietrzyk S, Granger P (2007) Kinetic investigation of the NO reduction by H2 over noble metal based catalysts. Catal Today 119(1):94–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dhainaut F, Pietrzyk S, Granger P (2007) Kinetics of the NO + H2 reaction over supported noble metal based catalysts: support effect on their adsorption properties. Appl Catal B 70(1):100–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mihet M, Lazar MD (2014) Effect of Pd and Rh promotion on Ni/Al2O3 for NO reduction by hydrogen for stationary applications. Chem Eng J 251:310–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Burch R, Coleman MD (1999) An investigation of the NO/H2/O2 reaction on noble-metal catalysts at low temperatures under lean-burn conditions. Appl Catal B 23(2):115–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Machida M, Ikeda S, Kurogi D, Kijima T (2001) Low temperature catalytic NOx–H2 reactions over Pt/TiO2–ZrO2 in an excess oxygen. Appl Catal B 35(2):107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wen B (2002) NO reduction with H2 in the presence of excess O2 over Pd/MFI catalyst. Fuel 81(14):1841–1846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Costa CN, Efstathiou AM (2007) Low-temperature H2-SCR of NO on a novel Pt/MgO–CeO2 catalyst. Appl Catal B 72(3):240–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Li L, Zhang F, Guan N, Schreier E, Richter M (2008) NO selective reduction by hydrogen on potassium titanate supported palladium catalyst. Catal Commun 9(9):1827–1832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nanba T, Kohno C, Masukawa S, Uchisawa J, Nakayama N, Obuchi A (2003) Improvements in the N2 selectivity of Pt catalysts in the NO–H2–O2 reaction at low temperatures. Appl Catal B 46(2):353–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Olympiou GG, Efstathiou AM (2011) Industrial NOx control via H2-SCR on a novel supported-Pt nanocatalyst. Chem Eng J 170(2):424–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tsujimura M, Furusawa T, Kunii D (1983) Catalytic reduction of nitric oxide by hydrogen over calcined limestone. J Chem Eng Jpn 16(6):524–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Thomas JF, Lewis SA, Bunting BG, Storey JM, Graves RL, Park PW (2005) Hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction using a silver-alumina catalyst with light alcohols and other reductants (No. 2005-01-1082). SAE Technical PaperGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    He H, Yu Y (2005) Selective catalytic reduction of NOx over Ag/Al2O3 catalyst: from reaction mechanism to diesel engine test. Catal Today 100(1):37–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fu M, Li C, Lu P, Qu L, Zhang M, Zhou Y, Yu M, Fang Y (2014) A review on selective catalytic reduction of NOx by supported catalysts at 100–300 °C—catalysts, mechanism, kinetics. Catal Sci Technol 4(1):14–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Alimin AJ, Benjamin SF, Roberts CA (2009) Lean NOx trap study on a light-duty diesel engine using fast-response emission analysers. Int J Engine Res 10(3):149–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ye Z, Li L (2003) Control options for exhaust gas aftertreatment and fuel economy of GDI engine systems. In: Proceedings of 42nd IEEE conference on decision and control, 2003, vol 2. IEEE, pp 1783–1788Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Matsumoto SI (1997) Recent advances in automobile exhaust catalyst. Catal Surv Jpn 1(1):111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ullman TL (1989) Investigation of the effects of fuel composition on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions (No. 892072). SAE Technical PaperGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Peirce DM, Alozie NSI, Hatherill DW, Ganippa LC (2013) Premixed burn fraction: its relation to the variation in NOx emissions between petro-and biodiesel. Energy Fuels 27(7):3838–3852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kittelson D (1997) Engines and nanaoparticles: a review. J Aerosol Sci 29(5):575–588Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Johnson TV (2001) Diesel emission control in review (No. 2001-01-0184). SAE Technical PaperGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Srivastava DK, Agarwal AK (2008) Particulate matter emissions from single cylinder diesel engine: effect of engine load on size and number distribution. SAE Int.  https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004 Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Faculties C, Sciences N (2007) Soot formation modeling during hydrocarbon pyrolysis and oxidation behind shock waves soot formation modeling during hydrocarbon pyrolysis and oxidation behind shock wavesGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nett Technology INC. What is a diesel oxidation catalystGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Zheng M, Banerjee S (2009) Diesel oxidation catalyst and particulate filter modeling in active-Flow configurations. Appl Therm Eng 29(14):3021–3035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Banerjee S (2007) Thermal analysis of active catalytic diesel particulate filter regeneration, MASc thesis, University of Windsor, Canada, May 2007Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hou WJ (2011) A experimental study on SCR system of diesel engine to reduce NOX emissions. Dalian University of Technology, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Seegopaul P, Bassir M, Alamdari H, Neste AV (2006) Nanostructured perovskitebased oxidation catalysts for improved environmental emission control. NSTINanotech 1. ISBN 0-9767985-6-5. www.nsti.org
  54. 54.
    Ishizaki K, Mitsuda N, Ohya N, Ohno H, Naka T, Abe A, Takagi H, Sugimoto A (2012) A study of PGM-free oxidation catalyst YMnO3 for diesel exhaust after treatment. SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0365.  https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-0365
  55. 55.
    Johnson T (2013) Vehicular emissions in review. SAE Int J Eng 6(2013-01-0538):699–715Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Liang X (2013) Research on treatment of diesel engine combined with DOC and DPF. Scientific Technol Innov Appl 11:24Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Guan B, Zhan R, Lin H, Huang Z (2015) Review of the state-of-the-art of exhaust particulate filter technology in internal combustion engines. J Environ Manage 154:225–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Liu TT (2012) Analysis on diesel after-treatment system fault diagnosis for CRT aging and failure. Beijing Transportation University, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Schäffner G (2014) Diesel particulate filter: exhaust aftertreatment for the reduction of soot emissionsGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EngineeringIIT MandiMandiIndia
  2. 2.Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institute of Energy and Powerplant TechnologyDarmstadtGermany

Personalised recommendations