Study on Synthesis and Properties of Gemini Surfactant Used as Viscoelastic Surfactant (VES)

  • Sisi Fang
  • Caili Dai
  • Xuepeng Wu
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Series in Geomechanics and Geoengineering book series (SSGG)


As one kind of the new surfactants with novel structure, higher surface activity, lower critical micelle concentration, and lower Krafft point, the quaternary ammonium gemini surfactants have a promising application prospect in viscoelastic surfactant (VES). In this paper, one kind of viscoelastic cationic gemini surfactant was synthesized through using N,N-dimethyl-1, 3-propane diamine, octadecanoic acid, and 1,4-dibromobutane. The molecular structure of the surfactant was characterized by 1H NMR, the self-assembly structure was observed by atomic force microscopy, and the viscoelasticity behavior was measured through rheological measurements. The study shows that the gemini surfactant can form self-assembled structures in single system, and the molecular self-assembly driven by the non-covalent interactions can provide the foundation for building well-defined structures in the nanometer or micrometer length scale. In addition, stable viscoelastic behavior was observed in the surfactant system, with strong binding energy and electrostatic interactions. This work can reveal the interaction mechanism between the molecules and the synergistic interactions of various non-covalent forces at molecular level, which is significant to study the viscoelastic surfactant used in clean fracturing fluid.


VES Gemini surfactant Self-assembly Viscoelasticity 



The work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21303268, U1663206), the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (51425406), the Chang Jiang Scholars Program (T2014152).


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Petroleum EngineeringChina University of Petroleum (East China)QingdaoChina

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