Horses and Hostlers in the Making of a Japanese Foreign Settlement

  • Timothy D. Amos


Yokohama, Japan’s most important nineteenth century treaty port, has been examined from various angles: as a site of transmission of goods, practices, and ideas; as a site of international connections between Japanese and Westerners; as an instance of Western imperialism, the site for the implementation and reinforcement of legally sanctioned inequality; and as a place of resistance, where indigenous efforts to resist this imperialism were carried out. This chapter focuses on the sociality and materiality of the treaty port through an examination of horses during the years 1853–1874. Horses, this chapter argues, were crucial in the formation and establishment of treaty ports like Yokohama, both at a material and at a symbolic level.


  1. Alcock, Sir Rutherford. The Capital of the Tycoon: A Narrative of a Three Years’ Residence in Japan, 2 vols. Vol. 1. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1863.Google Scholar
  2. Amos, Timothy. “Genealogy and Marginal Status in Early Modern Japan: The Case of Danzaemon,” Japanese Studies 33, no. 2 (2013): 147–159.Google Scholar
  3. Auslin, Michael R. Negotiating with Imperialism: The Unequal Treaties and the Culture of Japanese Diplomacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004.Google Scholar
  4. Baker, Valentine. British Calvary. London: Longman, 1858.Google Scholar
  5. Bickers, Robert, and Jackson, Isabella, eds. Treaty Ports in Modern China: Law, Land and Power. London: Routledge, 2016.Google Scholar
  6. Boyd, Richard, and Tak-Wing Ngo, eds. State Making in Asia. London and New York: Routledge, 2006.Google Scholar
  7. Cassel, Pär Kristoffer. Grounds of Judgment: Extraterritoriality and Imperial Power in Nineteenth-Century China and Japan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.Google Scholar
  8. Cook, Harold John. Matters of Exchange: Commerce, Medicine, and Science in the Dutch Golden Age. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007.Google Scholar
  9. Correspondence Relative to the Earl of Elgin’s Special Missions to China & Japan, 1857–1859. Presented to the House of Lords by Command of Her Majesty. London: Printed by Harrison & Sons, 1859.Google Scholar
  10. Dainihon shiryō sōgō deetaabeesu, University of Tokyo (1984). Tokyo Daigaku Shiryō Hensanjo,
  11. De Fonblanque, Edward Barrington. Niphon and Pe-Che-Li: Or, Two Years in Japan and Northern China. London: Saunders, Otley and Co., 1862.Google Scholar
  12. Eikoku ryōji uma sanbyaki hiki kōnyu no ken (1860.3.21), Hakodate bugyōsho monjo, A 1-3/006, #108, from
  13. Empire (Sydney, NSW: 1850–1875)Google Scholar
  14. Fortune, Robert. Yedo and Peking: A Narrative of a Journey to the Capitals of Japan and China, with Notices of the Natural Productions, Agriculture, Horticulture, and Trade of These Countries, and Other Things Met with by the Way by Robert Fortune. London: John Murray, 1863.Google Scholar
  15. Great Britain, Foreign Office. Correspondence with Her Majesty’s Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary in Japan. London: Harrison, 1860.Google Scholar
  16. Hall, Francis. Japan Through American Eyes: The Journal of Francis Hall, Kanagawa and Yokohama, 1859–1866, ed. F. G. Notehelfer. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  17. Harris, Townsend. The Complete Journal of Townsend Harris First American Consul General and Minister to Japan/Introduction and Notes by M. E. Cosenza. New York: Published for the Japan Society, New York, by Doubleday Doran, 1930.Google Scholar
  18. ———. Some Unpublished Letters of Townsend Harris, ed. Shio Sakanishi. New York: Japan Reference Library, 1941.Google Scholar
  19. Heco, Joseph. The Narrative of a Japanese; What He Has Seen and the People He Has Met in the Course of the Last Forty Years, by James Heco; edited by James Murdoch. Vol. 1. Yokohama: Yokohama Printing & Publishing Co., 1895.Google Scholar
  20. Honjo, Yuki Allyson. Japan’s Early Experience of Contract Management in the Treaty Ports. London: Japan Library, 2003.Google Scholar
  21. Howell, David. Geographies of Identity in Nineteenth-Century Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.Google Scholar
  22. Ishii, Ryosuke, and Hiroshi Harafuji, eds. Bakumatsu ofurigaki shūsei. Vol. 5. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1995.Google Scholar
  23. “JAPAN,” The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW: 1842–1954), February 20, 1863, 5. Accessed August 12, 2016,
  24. Jansen, Marius B. The Making of Modern Japan. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
  25. Jephson, Richard M., and Edward P. Elmhirst. Our Life in Japan; with Illustrations from Photographs by Lord Walter Kerr, Signor Beato and Native Japanese Drawings. London: Chapman and Hall, 1869.Google Scholar
  26. Kawasaki, Seirō. “Origins of the Stone Tablets on the St. Luke’s Hospital Grounds: An Episode in Early U.S.-Japanese Relations,” Tokyo kaseifuin tsukuba sōshidai kiyō dainishū. 1998.Google Scholar
  27. Mayers, William F., and Nicholas B. Dennys. The Treaty Ports of China and Japan: A Complete Guide to the Open Ports of Those Countries, Together with Peking, Yedo, Hong Kong and Macao: Forming a Guide Book & Vade Mecum for Travellers, Merchants, and Residents in General by Wm. Fred Mayers, N. B. Dennys and Chas. King; Compiled and Edited by N. B. Dennys. London/Hong Kong: Trubner & Co/A. Shortrede and Co., 1867.Google Scholar
  28. Naikaku, Kanpō Kyoku, ed. Hōrei zensho keiō yon [Compendium of Laws and Ordinances, 1868], National Diet Library.
  29. ———, ed. Hōrei zensho, National Diet Library. 1870, December 25.
  30. Perry, Matthew Calbraith. Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan. Washington, DC: A.O.P. Nicholson, 1856.Google Scholar
  31. Pitelka, Morgan. Spectacular Accumulation: Material Culture, Tokugawa Ieyasu, and Samurai Sociability. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press, 2016.Google Scholar
  32. Rennie, David Field. The British Arms in North China and Japan: Peking 1860, Kagosima 1862. London: J.Murray, 1864.Google Scholar
  33. Ryogo, Yuki (translated by Fumiko F. Earns). “A Present of Arabian Horses.” Accessed April 12, 2017.,
  34. Sawa, Mamoru. “Des Documents Sur S. Cazeneuve,” Keiai University Staff Papers 70 (2007).Google Scholar
  35. Swart, Sandra. “Riding High – Horses, Power and Settler Society, c.1654–1840,” Kronos no. 29 (2003): 47–63.Google Scholar
  36. ———. “The World the Horses Made: A South African Case Study of Writing Animals into Social History,” International Review of Social History 55, no. 2 (2010): 241–263.Google Scholar
  37. Taylor, Bayard. A Visit to India, China, and Japan: In the Year 1853. G. P. Putnam & Company, 1855.Google Scholar
  38. Times [London, England] 14 Sept. 1860: 8. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 2 August 2016.Google Scholar
  39. Tokyo Daigaku Shiryō Hensanjo, ed. Bakumatsu gaikoku kankei monjo no sanjū ichi (Ansei rokunen jūichigatsu kara dōnen jūnigatsu), Dainihon Komonjo. Tokyo: Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, 1986.Google Scholar
  40. ———, ed. Bakumatsu gaikoku kankei monjo no sanjū nana (Mannen gannen sangatsu), Dainihon Komonjo. Tokyo: Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, 1991.Google Scholar
  41. Tokyo Daigaku Shiryo Hensanjo, ed. Bakumatsu gaikoku kankei monjo no yonjū san (Mannen gannen jūgatsu muika kara dōnen jūgatsu misoka), Dainihon Komonjo. Tokyo: Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, 1991.Google Scholar
  42. ———, ed. Bakumatsu gaikoku kankei monjo no jūhachi (Ansei yonnen jūgatsu kara dōnen jūnigatsu), Dainihon Komonjo. Tokyo: Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, 1985.Google Scholar
  43. United States. Dept. of State, Papers Relating to Foreign Affairs: Diplomatic Correspondence, Etc., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1869.Google Scholar
  44. Williams, Harold. Foreigners in Mikadoland. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle Company, 2011.Google Scholar
  45. Yonemura, Ann, et al. On bōekiba, 1859. Accessed August 2, 2016,
  46. ———. Yokohama: Prints from Nineteenth-Century Japan. Washington, DC: Arthur M. Sackler Gallery/Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Timothy D. Amos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Japanese StudiesNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations