Chemistry, Therapeutic Attributes, and Biological Activities of Dillenia indica Linn

  • Ashok K. Singh
  • Sudipta SahaEmail author


Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) is generally known as elephant apple and locally known as outenga. The vernacular names are chalta, chulta, bhavya, karambel, ouu, and ramphal. This evergreen deciduous tree is markedly disseminated in the seasonal tropics of many Asian countries, in India from Himalaya to south India. The different parts of this plant have been prevalently investigated for the plethora of biological activities including anticancer, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, antileukemic, antioxidant, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, antinociceptive, antidiarrheal, and hairweaving activities. Differently prepared extracts of this plant have been reported mainly to contain a wide range of flavonoids, triterpenoids (lupene-type), phytosteroids, phenolics, alcohols, and ketones and an anthraquinone. Several phytochemical investigations revealed substantial presence of various types of active constituents including β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, betulin, betulinic acid, kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, dillenetin and rhamnetin. Among these the major chemical constituents are betulin and betulinic acid (lupene-type triterpenoids) that show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities like anti-HIV, anticancer, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, etc. The present chapter thus approaches to highlight on phytochemistry, traditional and therapeutic uses, and biological activities of Dillenia indica.


Dillenia indica Therapeutic attributes Phytochemistry Therapeutic uses Pharmacology 



The authors are grateful to the Vice Chancellor of Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, India, for the support.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar UniversityLucknowIndia

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