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Enhancement of Energy Efficiency at an Indian Milk Processing Plant Using Exergy Analysis

  • Babji Srinivasan
  • Jaideep Pal
  • Rajagopalan Srinivasan
Chapter
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)

Abstract

The dairy sector in India is the largest milk producer in the world. Substantial amounts of freshwater and energy are consumed during milk processing with concomitant impacts on sustainability. In this chapter, we study the energy efficiency at India’s largest milk processing plant and propose retrofits for improving the plant’s sustainability. Specifically, we report on exergy analysis of a milk powder manufacturing unit. Exergy of a system at a certain thermodynamic state is the maximum amount of work that can be obtained when the system moves from that state to one of equilibrium with its surroundings. In contrast to a conventional energy analysis, which maps the energy flows of the system and suggests opportunities for process integration, an exergy analysis pinpoints the locations, causes, and magnitudes of thermodynamic losses. The milk powder plant that is the focus of the current study consists of two sections—an evaporation section and a drying section. Our results reveal that exergy efficiency of certain units is very low (<20%). Significant improvements in energy efficiencies can be achieved through simple, low-cost retrofits to these units.

Keywords

Energy efficiency Diary industry Process integration Exergy Retrofit 

Nomenclature

Letter Symbols

Cp

Specific heat capacity at constant pressure (in kJ/kg K)

ex

Specific exergy (in kJ/kg)

h

Specific enthalpy (in kJ/kg)

\( {\dot{\text{m}}}\)̇

Mass flow rate (in kg/s)

p

Pressure of a system (in bar)

\({\dot{{Q}}}\)

Heat flow (in kJ/s or kW)

R

Mass-based (substance dependent) gas constant (in kJ/kg K)

s

Specific entropy (in kJ/kg K)

t

Time (in s)

T

Temperature of a system (in °C or K)

\( {\dot{{W}}}\)

Power (or work per time) (in kW)

Greek Symbols

Δ

Change in property

η

Exergy efficiency

Superscript

P

Pressure

T

Temperature

Subscripts

0

Thermodynamic state with ambient conditions

1

Thermodynamic state

2

Thermodynamic state

a

Fluid a

b

Fluid b

cv

Control volume

ex

Exergy

i

Initial

in

Inlet stream

f

Final

out

Outlet stream

p

Constant pressure

vap

Vaporization

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge Mr. S.S. Sundaran (OSD, Public Relations) and Mr. Deepak R. Sharma (Deputy Manager, Production) of Amul Dairy, Anand, for their constant support in this project.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Babji Srinivasan
    • 1
  • Jaideep Pal
    • 1
  • Rajagopalan Srinivasan
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Indian Institute of Technology GandhinagarGandhinagarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

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