Impact of climate change on agriculture and food production is already perceptible. In the present scenario of rising temperature, changing patterns of rain; increasing occurrence of extreme climatic events such as cyclone, drought and flood; the concept of climate smart agriculture (CSA) originated in order to make agriculture more resilient to climate change. Sustainably enhancing efficiency, adaptation to and mitigation of climate change are three pillars of CSA. Microorganisms are vital to several ecological processes in agroecosystem such as organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling, N2 fixation, phosphate solubilization, nutrient acquisition and recently discovered probiotics role. Appropriate management and exploitation of beneficial microbial functions such as use of biofertilizer, biopesticide, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, etc. help in achieving sustainable goal and alleviating adverse impact on environment. Microorganism can be used to facilitate adaptation to climate change by promoting growth and development and imparting resistance against several abiotic stresses. Soil microbes and their metabolic activity can influence land–atmosphere carbon exchanges in numerous ways, while these can be broadly divided into different groups as those that affect the ecosystem by methane and carbon dioxide uptake and that also control carbon loss from the soil through methane production and respiration. The role of microbe as a source and sink of greenhouse gas can be exploited to devise mitigation strategy for climate change.
Climate smart agriculture Rhizobacteria Agroecosystem Methane greenhouse gas Mitigation
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