Scientific Fraud and Other Types of Scientific Misconduct
A study of 395 retracted papers by journals published in English and indexed in MEDLINE between 1982 and 2002 shows that 107 (27.1%) of these were retracted for scientific misconduct . Similarly, Wager and Williams  report that 28% of the 312 MEDLINE English journal retractions (during 2005–2008 and a 1:3 random sampling of those during 1988–2004) were labelled as resulting from scientific misconduct. Many believe that more scientific misconduct in published articles goes undetected.
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