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Hotspots: An Introduction and Role in Conservation

  • I. Jaisankar
  • A. Velmurugan
  • T. P. Swarnam
  • A. K. Singh
Chapter

Abstract

Biodiversity is integral to the direct benefits that humans receive from nature besides ecosystem services. However, human activities and the negative consequences of climate change are accelerating the loss of biodiversity. There are multiple indications of continuing decline in biodiversity in all three of its components – ecosystems, species and genes. In order to receive continuous ecosystem services and protect the species from extinction, 35 global biodiversity hotspots have been identified for conservation. It is nothing but a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened with destruction. The tropical island of Andaman and Nicobar is part of the global biodiversity hotspot having a large number of flora and fauna besides exhibiting great endemism. The recent assessment showed that the plant diversity of these islands comprises 3219 species under 1251 genera belonging to angiosperms, gymnosperms, pteridophytes, bryophytes, lichens and algae. Similarly 1463 species of fishes, 600 species of corals, 120 species of sponges, 290 species of butterflies, 300 species of birds and 36 species of mangroves were recorded. They are imperative for the livelihood of local people, a treasure for humankind; therefore, efforts should be made to strengthen the conservation efforts and preservation of threatened floral and faunal diversity of these islands.

Keywords

Biodiversity Conservation Biogeographic region Bay islands Ecosystem services 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Jaisankar
    • 1
  • A. Velmurugan
    • 1
  • T. P. Swarnam
    • 1
  • A. K. Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Central Island Agricultural Research InstitutePort BlairIndia

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