Advertisement

Adjuvant Therapy in Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer

  • Jae Heon Kim
Chapter

Abstract

In the treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa), there currently exists no established spectrum of treatment options to include adjuvant therapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) and adjuvant hormonal therapy (HT) could be included as treatment options. In considering therapeutic options for treating HT, both short-term therapy and long-term therapy could be included. Generally, current evidence supports surgical intervention (radical prostatectomy “RP” or “RT”) with adjuvant RT or HT as the optimal curative therapeutic option(s) for treating the cancer. Although high-risk PCa is not the centerpiece topic for this chapter, evidence suggests that the addition of adjuvant HT could serve to produce a more favorable outcome in those cases. In this chapter, the current status of adjuvant therapy (RT and HT) as a treatment option as well as how well adjuvant treatment performs in conjunction with the relative role(s) of RP and/or RT shall be discussed in greater detail, below.

References

  1. 1.
    Berglund RK, Jones JS, Ulchaker JC, Fergany A, Gill I, Kaouk J, et al. Radical prostatectomy as primary treatment modality for locally advanced prostate cancer: a prospective analysis. Urology. 2006;67(6):1253–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carver BS, Bianco FJ Jr, Scardino PT, Eastham JA. Long-term outcome following radical prostatectomy in men with clinical stage T3 prostate cancer. J Urol. 2006;176(2):564–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Freedland SJ, Partin AW, Humphreys EB, Mangold LA, Walsh PC. Radical prostatectomy for clinical stage T3a disease. Cancer. 2007;109(7):1273–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Loeb S, Smith ND, Roehl KA, Catalona WJ. Intermediate-term potency, continence, and survival outcomes of radical prostatectomy for clinically high-risk or locally advanced prostate cancer. Urology. 2007;69(6):1170–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Masterson TA, Pettus JA, Middleton RG, Stephenson RA. Isolated seminal vesicle invasion imparts better outcomes after radical retropubic prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer: prognostic stratification of pt3b disease by nodal and margin status. Urology. 2005;66(1):152–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Secin FP, Bianco FJ Jr, Vickers AJ, Reuter V, Wheeler T, Fearn PA, et al. Cancer-specific survival and predictors of prostate-specific antigen recurrence and survival in patients with seminal vesicle invasion after radical prostatectomy. Cancer. 2006;106(11):2369–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boccon-Gibod L, Bertaccini A, Bono AV, Dev Sarmah B, Holtl W, Mottet N, et al. Management of locally advanced prostate cancer: a European consensus. Int J Clin Pract. 2003;57(3):187–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hodgson D, Warde P, Gospodarowicz M. The management of locally advanced prostate cancer. Urol Oncol. 1998;4(1):3–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Heidenreich A, Bastian PJ, Bellmunt J, Bolla M, Joniau S, van der Kwast T, et al. EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. Part 1: screening, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intent-update 2013. Eur Urol. 2014;65(1):124–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Porcaro AB, De Luyk N, Corsi P, Sebben M, Tafuri A, Processali T, et al. Clinical factors predicting bilateral lymph node invasion in high-risk prostate cancer. Urol Int. 2017;99:392–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gallina A, Chun FK, Briganti A, Shariat SF, Montorsi F, Salonia A, et al. Development and split-sample validation of a nomogram predicting the probability of seminal vesicle invasion at radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol. 2007;52(1):98–105.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Joniau S, Hsu CY, Lerut E, Van Baelen A, Haustermans K, Roskams T, et al. A pretreatment table for the prediction of final histopathology after radical prostatectomy in clinical unilateral T3a prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2007;51(2):388–94. discussion 95-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hsu CY, Joniau S, Oyen R, Roskams T, Van Poppel H. Outcome of surgery for clinical unilateral T3a prostate cancer: a single-institution experience. Eur Urol. 2007;51(1):121–8. discussion 8-9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hsu CY, Joniau S, Roskams T, Oyen R, Van Poppel H. Comparing results after surgery in patients with clinical unilateral T3a prostate cancer treated with or without neoadjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy. BJU Int. 2007;99(2):311–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ward JF, Slezak JM, Blute ML, Bergstralh EJ, Zincke H. Radical prostatectomy for clinically advanced (cT3) prostate cancer since the advent of prostate-specific antigen testing: 15-year outcome. BJU Int. 2005;95(6):751–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Johnstone PA, Ward KC, Goodman M, Assikis V, Petros JA. Radical prostatectomy for clinical T4 prostate cancer. Cancer. 2006;106(12):2603–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wallis CJD, Saskin R, Choo R, Herschorn S, Kodama RT, Satkunasivam R, et al. Surgery versus radiotherapy for clinically-localized prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Urol. 2016;70(1):21–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mason MD, Parulekar WR, Sydes MR, Brundage M, Kirkbride P, Gospodarowicz M, et al. Final report of the intergroup randomized study of combined androgen-deprivation therapy plus radiotherapy versus androgen-deprivation therapy alone in locally advanced prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(19):2143–50.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yamamoto S, Kawakami S, Yonese J, Fujii Y, Urakami S, Kitsukawa S, et al. Long-term oncological outcome in men with T3 prostate cancer: radical prostatectomy versus external-beam radiation therapy at a single institution. Int J Clin Oncol. 2014;19(6):1085–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Raina R, Agarwal A, Goyal KK, Jackson C, Ulchaker J, Angermeier K, et al. Long-term potency after iodine-125 radiotherapy for prostate cancer and role of sildenafil citrate. Urology. 2003;62(6):1103–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bolla M, van Poppel H, Tombal B, Vekemans K, Da Pozzo L, de Reijke TM, et al. Postoperative radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer: long-term results of a randomised controlled trial (EORTC trial 22911). Lancet. 2012;380(9858):2018–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Thompson IM Jr, Tangen CM, Paradelo J, Lucia MS, Miller G, Troyer D, et al. Adjuvant radiotherapy for pathologically advanced prostate cancer: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2006;296(19):2329–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fahmy O, Khairul-Asri MG, Hadi S, Gakis G, Stenzl A. The role of radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy in treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Urol Int. 2017;99:249–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Crawford ED, Schally AV, Pinthus JH, Block NL, Rick FG, Garnick MB, et al. The potential role of follicle-stimulating hormone in the cardiovascular, metabolic, skeletal, and cognitive effects associated with androgen deprivation therapy. Urol Oncol. 2017;35(5):183–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gupta D, Salmane C, Slovin S, Steingart RM. Cardiovascular complications of androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med. 2017;19(8):61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Keating NL. Type of androgen deprivation therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease. Eur Urol. 2017;72:929–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bolla M, Van Tienhoven G, Warde P, Dubois JB, Mirimanoff RO, Storme G, et al. External irradiation with or without long-term androgen suppression for prostate cancer with high metastatic risk: 10-year results of an EORTC randomised study. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11(11):1066–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Thompson IM, Tangen CM, Paradelo J, Lucia MS, Miller G, Troyer D, et al. Adjuvant radiotherapy for pathological T3N0M0 prostate cancer significantly reduces risk of metastases and improves survival: long-term followup of a randomized clinical trial. J Urol. 2009;181(3):956–62.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wiegel T, Bartkowiak D, Bottke D, Bronner C, Steiner U, Siegmann A, et al. Adjuvant radiotherapy versus wait-and-see after radical prostatectomy: 10-year follow-up of the ARO 96-02/AUO AP 09/95 trial. Eur Urol. 2014;66(2):243–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Thompson IM, Valicenti RK, Albertsen P, Davis BJ, Goldenberg SL, Hahn C, et al. Adjuvant and salvage radiotherapy after prostatectomy: AUA/ASTRO guideline. J Urol. 2013;190(2):441–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ku JY, Lee CH, Ha HK. Long-term oncologic outcomes of postoperative adjuvant versus salvage radiotherapy in prostate cancer: systemic review and meta-analysis of 5-year and 10-year follow-up data. Korean J Urol. 2015;56(11):735–41.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Denham JW, Wilcox C, Joseph D, Spry NA, Lamb DS, Tai KH, et al. Quality of life in men with locally advanced prostate cancer treated with leuprorelin and radiotherapy with or without zoledronic acid (TROG 03.04 RADAR): secondary endpoints from a randomised phase 3 factorial trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(12):1260–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pilepich MV, Winter K, Lawton CA, Krisch RE, Wolkov HB, Movsas B, et al. Androgen suppression adjuvant to definitive radiotherapy in prostate carcinoma: long-term results of phase III RTOG 85-31. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;61(5):1285–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Roach M 3rd, Bae K, Speight J, Wolkov HB, Rubin P, Lee RJ, et al. Short-term neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy and external-beam radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer: long-term results of RTOG 8610. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(4):585–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhou ZR, Zhu XD, Xia J, Zou ZY, Qu S, Zeng XT, et al. Short-term versus long-term hormone therapy plus radiotherapy or prostatectomy for prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2013;139(5):783–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gleave ME, Goldenberg SL, Chin JL, Warner J, Saad F, Klotz LH, et al. Randomized comparative study of 3 versus 8-month neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before radical prostatectomy: biochemical and pathological effects. J Urol. 2001;166(2):500–6. discussion 6-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pu XY, Wang XH, Wu YL, Wang HP. Comparative study of the impact of 3- versus 8-month neoadjuvant hormonal therapy on outcome of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2007;133(8):555–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Roach M 3rd, DeSilvio M, Lawton C, Uhl V, Machtay M, Seider MJ, et al. Phase III trial comparing whole-pelvic versus prostate-only radiotherapy and neoadjuvant versus adjuvant combined androgen suppression: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9413. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(10):1904–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Montgomery B, Lavori P, Garzotto M, Lee K, Brophy M, Thaneemit-Chen S, et al. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program study 553: chemotherapy after prostatectomy, a phase III randomized study of prostatectomy versus prostatectomy with adjuvant docetaxel for patients with high-risk, localized prostate cancer. Urology. 2008;72(3):474–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jae Heon Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologySoonchunhyang University Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of MedicineSeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations