Fluorescein and Indocyanine Green Angiography

  • Ik-Soo Byon


Fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) are essential techniques to visualize the retinal and choroidal vessels using a dye. The confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopes can generate the enhanced angiographic images of retinal and chorioidal vasculature. Various angiographic findings including hyperfluosecein and hypofluorecein in FA and ICGA can help the physician to diagnose and treat the intraocular diseases. This chapter provides a review of basic principles and clinical application of FA and ICGA.

Suggested Reading

  1. Haug S, Fu AD, Johnson RN, et al. Fluorescein angiography: basic principles and interpretation. In: Ryan SJ, editor. Retina. 6th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier; 2017. p. 1–45.Google Scholar
  2. Lumbroso B, Rispoli M. Practical handbook of fluorescein angiography. 1st ed. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers; 2014.Google Scholar
  3. Staurenghi G, Bottoni F, Giani A. Clinical applications of diagnostic indocyanine green angiography. In: Ryan SJ, editor. Retina. 6th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier; 2017. p. 46–76.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ik-Soo Byon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyPusan National University School of MedicineBusanSouth Korea

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