Fundus Examination

  • Han-Jo Kwon
  • Sung-Who Park


The fundus examination can be performed through fundus photography or by means of direct ophthalmoscope, indirect ophthalmoscope, and slit lamp. The fundus exam views the eye’s interior through the pupil, which is a small hole. If necessary, the pupil is examined after it is dilated with 0.5–1% tropicamide or 2.5–10% phenylephrine. Because pupil dilatation may cause angle closure glaucoma, it should be performed after checking the anterior chamber depth.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Han-Jo Kwon
    • 1
  • Sung-Who Park
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyPusan National University HospitalBusanSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyPusan National University School of MedicineBusanSouth Korea

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