Practices and Processes of Placemaking in Inuit Nunangat (The Canadian Arctic)

  • Scott HeyesEmail author
  • Martha Dowsley


In this chapter, we introduce the concept of ‘placemaking’ to the Canadian Arctic context, a term frequently used in urban planning and architectural settings to describe and characterise how spaces are formed by organic and systematic activities, particularly in contemporary times.



We thank our Inuit colleagues and friends for passing on their knowledge of the land and the sea to us, and for welcoming us into their homes. Thanks to Dr Christine Heyes-LaBond for providing constructive feedback in the preparation of this chapter.


  1. Alia, V. (2008). Names and Nunavut: Culture and identity in the Inuit homeland. Oxford: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous. (1833). The Moravians in Labrador. Edinburgh: Ritchie. Accessed 12 June 2017.
  3. Aporta, C. (2002). Life on the ice: Understanding the codes of a changing environment. Polar Record, 38, 341–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aporta, C., & Higgs, E. (2005). Satellite culture: Global positioning systems Inuit wayfinding, and the need for a new account of technology. Current Anthropology, 46(5), 729–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Betts, M., Hardenberg, M., & Stirling, I. (2015). How animals create human history: Relational ecology and the Dorset-Polar Bear connection. American Antiquity, 80(1), 89–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bielawski, E. (1988). Paleoeskimo variability: The early arctic small-tool tradition in the central Canadian Arctic. American Antiquity, 53(1), 52–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brice-Bennett, C. (Ed.). (1977). Our footprints are everywhere Inuit: Land use and occupancy in Labrador. Nain: Inuit Association.Google Scholar
  8. Brody, H. (1976). Land occupancy: Inuit perception. In M. Freeman (Ed.), Inuit land use and occupancy project: A report. Volume One: Land use and occupancy (pp. 185–242). Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada.Google Scholar
  9. Brody, H. (1981). Maps and dreams. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre Ltd.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, S. (2011). Aspects of Dorset paleoeskimo mortuary behaviour on the northern peninsula of Newfoundland. In M. Renouf (Ed.), The cultural landscapes of Port au Choix: Precontact hunter-gatherers of Northwestern Newfoundland (pp. 227–250). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burch, E. (1971). The nonempirical environment of the Arctic Alaskan Eskimos. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 27(2), 148–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carpenter, E., Varley, F., & Flaherty, R. (1959). Eskimo. Toronto: University of Toronto.Google Scholar
  13. Collignon, B. (2006). Knowing places: The Inuinnait, landscapes and the environment. Edmonton: CCI Press.Google Scholar
  14. Collings, P. (2005). Housing policy, aging, and life course construction in a Canadian community. Arctic Anthropology, 42(2), 50–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cox, S. (2003). Palaeoeskimo structures in the Okak Bay region of Labrador. Études/Inuit/Studies, 27(1–2), 417–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dawson, P. (2002). Space syntax analysis of Central Inuit snow houses. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 21(4), 464–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dorais, L.-J. (2014). The language of the Inuit: Syntax, semantics, and society in the Arctic. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s Press.Google Scholar
  18. Dowsley, M. (2015). Identity and the evolving relationship between women and the land in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Polar Record, 51(5), 536–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Etok, T. (1975). Whispering in my ears and mingling with my dreams. Quebec: George River.Google Scholar
  20. Fienup-Riordan, A. (2007). Yuungnaqpiallerput/The way we genuinely live: Masterworks of Yup’ik science and survival. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  21. Fitzhugh, W. (1981). A Prehistoric Caribou fence from Williams Harbour, Northern Labrador. In M. Wilson, K. Road, & K. J. Hardy (Eds.), Megaliths to Medicine Wheels: Boulder Structures in Archaeology. Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Chacmool Conference Archaeological Association (pp. 187–206). Department of Archaeology, University of Calgary.Google Scholar
  22. Fitzhugh, W. (1984). Residence pattern development in the Labrador Maritime Archaic: Longhouse models and 1983 surveys. In J. Thomson, & C. Thomson (Eds.), Archaeology in Newfoundland and Labrador: Annual Report No. 4. St. John’s, Newfoundland: Government of Newfoundland, Historic Resources Division (pp. 6–47).Google Scholar
  23. Fitzhugh, W. (2015). The Tuvaaluk and Torngat archaeological projects: Review and assessment. Études/Inuit/Studies, 39(2), 27–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fox-Gearheard, S., Mahoney, A., Mello Leavitt, J., Huntington, H., & Holm, L. (2013). The meaning of ice: People and sea ice in three Arctic communities. Hanover: New England Press.Google Scholar
  25. Freeman, M. (Ed.). (1976). Inuit land use and occupancy project: A report (3 Vols.). Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services.Google Scholar
  26. Friesen, M., & Betts, M. (2006). Archaeofaunas and architecture: Zooarchaeological variability in an Inuit semi-subterranean house, Arctic Canada. In M. Maltby (Ed.), Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the International Council of Archaeozoology, Durham, August 2002 (pp. 64–75). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  27. Gagné, R. (1968). Spatial concepts in the Eskimo Language. In V. Valentine & F. Vallee (Eds.), Eskimo of the Canadian Arctic (pp. 31–38). Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.Google Scholar
  28. Graburn, N. (2000) Copies, models and marks: Representation among the Canadian Inuit. In Conference Paper for the 12th Inuit Studies Conference. Aberdeen, Scotland.Google Scholar
  29. Hallendy, N. (2009). Tukiliit. The Stone People who live in the wind: An introduction to Inuksuit and other stone figures of the North. Ancorhage: University of Alaska Press.Google Scholar
  30. Harp, E., & Hughes, D. (1968). Five prehistoric burials from Port Aux Choix Newfoundland. Polar Notes, 8, 1–47.Google Scholar
  31. Hawkes, E. W. (1916). The Eskimo. Ottawa: Government Printing Bureau.Google Scholar
  32. Heyes, S. (2002). Inuit and scientific ways of knowing and seeing the Arctic landscape. Master’s thesis, The University of Adelaide.Google Scholar
  33. Heyes, S. (2007) Inuit knowledge and perceptions of the land-water interface. Ph.D. thesis, McGill University.Google Scholar
  34. Heyes, S. (2011). Cracks in the knowledge: Sea ice terms in Kangiqsualujjuaq, Nunavik. Canadian Geographer, 55(1), 69–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Heyes, S. (2015). Field notes Kangiqsualujjuaq.Google Scholar
  36. Heyes, S., & Jacobs, P. (2008). Losing place: Diminishing traditional knowledge of the Arctic Coastal Landscape. In F. Vanclay, J. Malpas, M. Higgins, & A. Blackshaw (Eds.), Making sense of place: Exploring concepts and expressions of place through different senses and lenses (pp. 135–154). Canberra: National Museum of Australia.Google Scholar
  37. Hill, E. (2012). The nonempirical past: Enculturated landscapes and other-than-human Persons in Southwest Alaska. Arctic Anthropology, 49(2), 41–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jerkic, S. (1993). Burials and bones: A summary of burial patterns and human skeletal research in Newfoundland and. Newfoundland and Labrador Studies, 9(2), 213–234.Google Scholar
  39. Krupnik, I., Aporta, C., Gearheard, S., Laidler, G., & Kielsen Holm, L. (Eds.). (2010). SIKU: Knowing our ice documenting Inuit sea ice knowledge and use. Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  40. Laidler, G., & Ikummaq, T. (2008). Human geographies of: Freeze/thaw processes around Igloolik Nunavut, Canada. Polar Record, 44(229), 127–153.Google Scholar
  41. Lazenby, C. (1984). Ramah chert use patterns during the maritime archaic period in Labrador. Masters thesis, Bryn Mawr College.Google Scholar
  42. LeBlanc, S. (2003). A Middle Dorset dwelling in Trinity Bay Newfoundland. Études/Inuit/Studies., 23(1–2), 493–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lee T. (1974). Archaeological Investigations of a Longhouse Ruin, Pamiok Island, Ungava Bay, 1972. Quebec City, Centre d’études nordiques, Université Laval, Paléo-Québec, 2.Google Scholar
  44. Lopez, B. (1986). Arctic dreams: Imagination and desire in a northern landscape. London: Harvill Press.Google Scholar
  45. Loring, S. (2002). And they took away the stones from Ramah: Lithic raw material sourcing and eastern arctic archaeology. In W. Fitzhugh, S. Loring, & D. Odess (Eds.), Honoring our elders: A history of eastern arctic archaeology: Contributions to circumpolar anthropology (Vol. 2, pp. 163–185). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.Google Scholar
  46. MacDonald, J. (2000). The Arctic sky Inuit: astronomy, star lore, and legend. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum.Google Scholar
  47. Makivik Corporation. (1985). Nunavik land use and ecological mapping project. Montreal: Makivik Corporation.Google Scholar
  48. McGhee, R. (1984). Thule prehistory of Canada. In D. Damas (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians, Arctic, Volume Five (pp. 369–376). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.Google Scholar
  49. McGhee, R. (2001). Ancient people of the Arctic. Vancouver: UBC Press.Google Scholar
  50. Müller-Wille, L. (1987). Inuttutut Nunait Atingitta Katirsutauningit Nunavimmi (Kupaimmi, Kanatami): Gazetteer of Inuit Place Names in Nunavik (Quebec, Canada). Inukjuak: Avataq Cultural Institute.Google Scholar
  51. Muller-Wille, L., & Weber, L. (1983). Inuit place name inventory of Northeastern Quebec-Labrador (p. 37), Montreal: McGill Sub Arctic Research Paper.Google Scholar
  52. Nuttall, M. (1992). Arctic homeland: Kinship, community and development in Northwest Greenland. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  53. Plumet, P. (1985). Archéologie de l’Ungava: le site de la Pointe aux Bélougas (Qilalugarsiuvik) et les maisons longues dorsétiennes, Montreal: Université du Québec à Montréal, Laboratoire d’archéologie, Paléo-Québec: 18.Google Scholar
  54. Saladin d’Anglure, B. (1984). Inuit of Quebec. In D. Damas (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Arctic (Vol. 5, pp. 477–478). Washington: Smithsonian Institution.Google Scholar
  55. Schneider, L. (1985). Ulirnaisigutiit: An Inuktitut-English Dictionary of Northern Quebec, Labrador and Eastern Arctic Dialects. Quebec: Les Presses de l’Univerisite Laval.Google Scholar
  56. Spink, J., & Moodie, D. (1972). Eskimo maps from the Canadian Eastern Arctic. Cartographica: Monograph No. 5 (pp. 1–98). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  57. Steckley, J. (2008). White lies about the Inuit. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  58. Turner, L. (1884). Language of the “Koksoagmyut” Eskimo at Ft. Chimo, Ungava, Labrador Peninsula (Vol. 3, pp. 1882–1884). Unpublished manuscript, National Anthropological Archives, BAE MS 2505-a. Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.Google Scholar
  59. Turner, L. (1886). Letter from Lucien M. Turner to Henry Wetherbee Henshaw, Dated March 23, 1886. Manuscript 3463, Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology, National Anthropological Archives. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.Google Scholar
  60. Turner, L. (1887). Descriptive catalogue of ethnological collections made by Lucien M. in Ungava and, Hudson Bay Territory, June 24, 1882 to October 1884, Part 1 on Inuit, unpublished manuscript. Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7192, Box 1 of 2 (3 folders), Turner Lucien M, 1848–1909, Papers, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.Google Scholar
  61. Whitridge, P. (2008). Reimagining the Iglu: Modernity and the challenge of the Eighteenth Century Winter House. Archaeologies, 4(2), 288–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zságer, L. (2010). Miniature carvings in the Canadian Dorset Culture: The Paleo-Eskimo belief system. Perspectivas Colombo Canadienses, 3, 111–124.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of CanberraCanberraAustralia
  2. 2.Lakehead UniversityThunder BayCanada

Personalised recommendations