Advertisement

Emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Nitrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (NPAHs) from Diesel Engines and Vehicles

  • Christopher D. SimpsonEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Diesel engine emissions are rich in PAHs and NPAHs, and vehicular emissions are a major source of PAHs and NPAHs in urban air. Specific NPAHs, including 1-nitropyrene, are enriched in diesel exhaust relative to other sources and have been used as source-specific tracers for diesel exhaust. However, changes in diesel engines and emission control technology driven by air quality regulations has led to substantial reductions in PAH and NPAH emissions from modern diesel engines and changes in the PAH/NPAH composition of these emissions. This chapter examines the contribution of diesel engine emissions to ambient PAH and NPAH concentrations and personal exposures and the effect of changing engine and exhaust treatment technologies on the PAHs and NPAHs emitted from diesel engines.

Keywords

Diesel exhaust Emissions control technology 1-Nitropyrene 

References

  1. Alkurdi F, Karabet F, Dimashki M (2013) Characterization, concentrations and emission rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the exhaust emissions from in-service vehicles in Damascus. Atmos Res 120:68–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alves CA, Barbosa C, Rocha S, Calvo A, Nunes T, Cerqueira M, Pio C, Karanasiou A, Querol X (2015) Elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in exhaust particles emitted by light-duty vehicles. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 22(15):11526–11542CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arey J, Zielinska B, Atkinson R, Winer AM, Ramdahl T, Pitts JN Jr (1986) The formation of nitro-PAH from the gas-phase reactions of fluoranthene and pyrene with the OH radical in the presence of NOx. Atmos Environ 20(12):2339–2345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bagley ST, Gratz LD, Johnson JH, McDonald JF (1998) Effects of an oxidation catalytic converter and a biodiesel fuel on the chemical, mutagenic, and particle size characteristics of emissions from a diesel engine. Environ Sci Technol 32(9):1183–1191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bamford HA, Baker JE (2003) Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations and sources in urban and suburban atmospheres of the Mid-Atlantic region. Atmos Environ 37(15):2077–2091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bamford HA, Bezabeh DZ, Schantz S, Wise SA, Baker JE (2003) Determination and comparison of nitrated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured in air and diesel particulate reference materials. Chemosphere 50(5):575–587CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bezabeh DZ, Bamford HA, Schantz MM, Wise SA (2003) Determination of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel particulate-related standard reference materials by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with negative ion chemical ionization. Anal Bioanal Chem 375(3):381–388CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. CARB (2000) Risk reduction plan to reduce particulate matter emissions from diesel-fueled engines and vehicles. California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board, p 38Google Scholar
  9. Di Vaio P, Cocozziello B, Corvino A, Fiorino F, Frecentese F, Magli E, Onorati G, Saccone I, Santagada V, Settimo G, Severino B, Perissutti E (2016) Level, potential sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter (PM10) in Naples. Atmos Environ 129:186–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. EPA US (2002) Health assessment document for diesel engine exhaust. US EPA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  11. Fox JR, Cox DP, Drury BE, Gould TR, Kavanagh TJ, Paulsen MH, Sheppard L, Simpson CD, Stewart JA, Larson TV, Kaufman JD (2015) Chemical characterization and in vitro toxicity of diesel exhaust particulate matter generated under varying conditions. Air Qual Atmos Health 8(5):507–519CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gallagher J, Heinrich U, George M, Hendee L, Phillips DH, Lewtas J (1994) Formation of DNA adducts in rat lung following chronic inhalation of diesel emissions, carbon black and titanium dioxide particles. Carcinogenesis 15(7):1291–1299CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hayakawa K, Tang N, Kameda T, Toriba A (2014) Atmospheric behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in East Asia. Genes Environ 36(3):152–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Heeb NV, Schmid P, Kohler M, Gujer E, Zennegg M, Wenger D, Wichser A, Ulrich A, Gfeller U, Honegger P, Zeyer K, Emmenegger L, Petermann JL, Czerwinski J, Mosimann T, Kasper M, Mayer A (2008) Secondary effects of catalytic diesel particulate filters: conversion of PAHs versus formation of nitro-PAHs. Environ Sci Technol 42(10):3773–3779CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Heeb NV, Schmid P, Kohler M, Gujer E, Zennegg M, Wenger D, Wichser A, Ulrich A, Gfeller U, Honegger P, Zeyer K, Emmenegger L, Petermann JL, Czerwinski J, Mosimann T, Kasper M, Mayer A (2010) Impact of low- and high-oxidation diesel particulate filters on genotoxic exhaust constituents. Environ Sci Technol 44(3):1078–1084CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hu S, Herner JD, Robertson W, Kobayashi R, Chang MCO, Huang SM, Zielinska B, Kado N, Collins JF, Rieger P, Huai T, Ayala A (2013) Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs from heavy-duty diesel vehicles with DPF and SCR. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 63(8):984–996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. IARC (2014) Carcinogenicity of diesel-engine and gasoline-engine exhausts and some nitroarenes. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, vol 105. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, p 714Google Scholar
  18. Kakimoto H, Kitamura M, Matsumoto Y, Sakai S, Kanoh F, Murahashi T, Akutsu K, Kizu R, Hayakawa K (2000) Comparison of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and Nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Kanazawa, Sapporo and Tokyo. J Health Sci 46(1):5–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Khalek IA, Blanks MG, Merritt PM, Zielinska B (2015) Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 65(8):987–1001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kweon CB, Okada S, Foster DE, Bae MS, Schauer JJ (2003) Effect of engine operating conditions on particle-phase organic compounds in engine exhaust of a heavy-duty direct-injection (D.I.) diesel engine. SAE Technical Papers. Paper # 2003-01-0342Google Scholar
  21. Lim MCH, Ayoko GA, Morawska L, Ristovski ZA, Jayaratne ER (2005) Effect of fuel composition and engine operating conditions on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from a fleet of heavy-duty diesel buses. Atmos Environ 39(40):7836–7848Google Scholar
  22. Manabe Y, Kinouchi T, Wakisaka K, Tahara I, Ohnishi Y (1984) Mutagenic 1-nitropyrene in wastewater from oil-water separating tanks of gasoline stations and in used crankcase oil. Environ Mutagen 6(5):669–681CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. McDonald JD, Campen MJ, Harrod KS, Seagrave J, Seilkop SK, Mauderly JL (2011) Engine-operating load influences diesel exhaust composition and cardiopulmonary and immune responses. Environ Health Persp 119(8):1136–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. MECA (2007) Emission control technologies for diesel-powered vehicles. Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  25. Miller JD, Facanha C (2014) The state of clean transport policy. International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  26. Murahashi T, Miyazaki M, Kakizawa R, Yamagishi Y, Kitamura M, Hayakawa K (1995) Diurnal concentrations of 1,3-, 1,6-, 1,8-dinitropyrenes, 1-nitropyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in air in downtown Kanazawa and the contribution of diesel-engine vehicles. Jpn J Tox Environ Health 41(5):328–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ramdahl T, Zielinska B, Arey J, Atkinson R, Winer AM, Pitts JN Jr (1986) Ubiquitous occurrence of 2-nitrofluoranthene and 2-nitropyrene in air. Nature 321(6068):425–427CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Riley EA, Carpenter EE, Ramsey J, Zamzow E, Pyke C, Paulsen MH, Sheppard L, Spear TM, Seixas NS, Stephenson DJ, Simpson CD (2017) Evaluation of 1-nitropyrene as a surrogate measure for diesel exhaust. Ann Work Exp Health (manuscript in review)Google Scholar
  29. Schauer JJ, Kleeman MJ, Cass GR, Simoneit BRT (1999) Measurement of emissions from air pollution sources. 2. C-1 through C-30 organic compounds from medium duty diesel trucks. Environ Sci Technol 33(10):1578–1587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Scheepers PT, Bos RP (1992) Combustion of diesel fuel from a toxicological perspective. I Origin of incomplete combustion products. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 64(3):149–161CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Scheepers PTJ, Fijneman PHS, Beenakkers MFM, de Lepper AJGM, Thuis HJTM, Stevens D, Van Rooij JGM, Noordhoek J, Bos RP (1995) Immunochemical detection of metabolites of parent and nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine samples from persons occupationally exposed to diesel exhaust. Fresen J Anal Chem 351(7):660–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Scheepers PT, Micka V, Muzyka V, Anzion R, Dahmann D, Poole J, Bos RP (2003) Exposure to dust and particle-associated 1-nitropyrene of drivers of diesel-powered equipment in underground mining. Ann Occup Hyg 47(5):379–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Schuetzle D, Perez JM (1983) Factors influencing the emissions of nitrated-Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons(nitro-Pah) from diesel-engines. J Air Waste Pollut Cont Assoc 33(8):751–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schulte JK, Fox JR, Oron AP, Larson TV, Simpson CD, Paulsen M, Beaudet N, Kaufman JD, Magzamen S (2015) Neighborhood-scale spatial models of diesel exhaust concentration profile using 1-nitropyrene and other Nitroarenes. Environ Sci Technol 49(22):13422–13430CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Seidel A, Dahmann D, Krekeler H, Jacob J (2002) Biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic compounds in the urine of mining workers occupationally exposed to diesel exhaust. Int J Hyg Environ Health 204(5–6):333–338CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Sharp CA, Howell SA, Jobe J (2000) The effect of biodiesel fuels on transient emissions from modern diesel engines, Part II Unregulated emissions and chemical characterization. SAE International. Paper # 2000-01-1968Google Scholar
  37. Sharpe B, Fung, F Kamakate F, Posada F, Rutherford D (2011) Developing a world class technology pathways program in China: international practices for vehicle emissions standards. The International Council on Clean Transportation, No. 14Google Scholar
  38. Taga R, Tang N, Hattori T, Tamura K, Sakai S, Toriba A, Kizu R, Hayakawa K (2005) Direct-acting mutagenicity of extracts of coal burning-derived particulates and contribution of nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Mutat Res 581(1–2):91–95CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Talaska G, Underwood P, Maier A, Lewtas J, Rothman N, Jaeger M (1996) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs and related environmental compounds: biological markers of exposure and effects. Environ Health Perspect 104(Suppl 5):901–906CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Tang N, Hattori T, Taga R, Igarashi K, Yang XY, Tamura K, Kakimoto H, Mishukov VF, Toriba A, Kizu R, Hayakawa K (2005) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air particulates and their relationship to emission sources in the pan-Japan Sea countries. Atmos Environ 39(32):5817–5826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tsai PJ, Shih TS, Chen HL, Lee WJ, Lai CH, Liou SH (2004) Assessing and predicting the exposures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their carcinogenic potencies from vehicle engine exhausts to highway toll station workers. Atmos Environ 38(2):333–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. USEPA (2016) National Clean Diesel Campaign. Retrieved December 23, 2016, from https://www.epa.gov/cleandiesel
  43. Vermeulen R, Coble JB, Lubin JH, Portengen L, Blair A, Attfield MD, Silverman DT, Stewart PA (2010) The diesel exhaust in miners study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities. Ann Occup Hyg 54(7):774–788PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhang YZ, Yao ZL, Shen XB, Liu H, He KB (2015) Chemical characterization of PM2.5 emitted from on-road heavy-duty diesel trucks in China. Atmos Environ 122:885–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zielinska B, Campbell D, Lawson DR, Ireson RG, Weaver CS, Hesterberg TW, Larson T, Davey M, Liu LJ (2008) Detailed characterization and profiles of crankcase and diesel particulate matter exhaust emissions using speciated organics. Environ Sci Technol 42(15):5661–5666CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental and Occupational Health SciencesSchool of Public Health, University of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations