Modeling City Patterns for Urban Ventilation: Strategies in High Density Areas of Singapore
Effective urban ventilation cools physical surfaces, reduces energy consumption and improves human thermal comfort under hot conditions, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. It is important for planners and architects to understand the influences of urban morphological features on wind environment and air movement.
In addition to a concise literature review regarding wind behaviour in tropical and subtropical high-density urban environments, this study uses Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to assess strategies of adjusting breezeway features based on Singapore’s climate. These strategies include: (1) reducing breezeway network densities; (2) varying breezeway widths; (3) varying breezeway spacing; (4) staggering the block; and (5) inserting T-shaped junctions by merging two plots. They were studied in two plot types, namely, separate blocks on top of the podium (type A) or ground (type B), which have the same building plot ratios and site areas.
By comparing strategies, in general, the second strategy—varying breezeway widths—achieves the best compromise between pedestrian and building ventilation potentials. On the contrary, the third and fourth strategies lead to poor ventilation. In addition, by comparing the plot types, type B (without podium) tends to achieve better wind environments in most of the strategies. Furthermore, with higher design flexibility, breezeway patterns inside land lots have stronger effects on urban ventilation than breezeway patterns outside land lots.
The results in terms of the influence of breezeway network patterns as a design parameter are significant for both planners and architects. For planners, they provide direct guidance for arranging streets and other city open spaces, which should be planned prior to building design. For architects, they offer an effective way to parameterise the building layouts especially those of extreme complexity. Whilst the study focuses on the macro level, both aspects of urban planning and design are important complements to other urban cooling strategies.
KeywordsUrban ventilation Breezeway network pattern High density CFD Passive cooling Singapore
- Building and Construction Authority. (2010). Green building planning and massing. Singapore: Building and Construction Authority.Google Scholar
- Building and Construction Authority. (2012). Certification standard for new buildings, BCA green mark (Version 4.1). Singapore: Building and Construction Authority. https://www.bca.gov.sg/GreenMark/others/GM_Certification_Std2012.pdf.Google Scholar
- Chatelet, A., Fernandez, P., & Lavigne, P. (1998). Architecture Climatique. Une contribution au développement durable 2. Aix-en-Provence: Edisud.Google Scholar
- Cheshmehzangi, A., Zhu, Y., Li, B. (2010). Integrated urban design approach: sustainability for urban design. Proceedings for ICRM 2010, 5th International Conference for Responsive Manufacturing in China. Ningbo.Google Scholar
- Franke, J., Hellsten, A., Schlünzen, H., & Carissimo, B. (2007). Best practice guideline for the CFD simulation of flows in the urban environment, COST 732. Quality assurance and improvement of microscale meteorological models. Brussels: COST Office.Google Scholar
- Georgakis, C., & Santamouris, M. (2005). Wind and temperature in the urban environment. In C. Ghiaus & F. Allard (Eds.), Natural ventilation in the urban environment: Assessment and design (pp. 81–102). London/Sterling: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Hong Kong Planning Department. (2005). Feasibility study for establishment of air ventilation assessment system. Final report, Hong Kong.Google Scholar
- Kubota, T., Miura, M., Tominaga, Y., & Mochida, A. (2008). Wind tunnel tests on the relationship between building density and pedestrian-level wind velocity: Development of guidelines for realizing acceptable wind environment in residential neighborhoods. Building and Environment, 43(10), 1699–1708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Launder, B. E., & Spalding, D. B. (1974). The numerical computation of turbulent flows. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 3(2), 269–289.Google Scholar
- National Environment Agency. Record of climate station mean, weather statistics 2016. http://www.nea.gov.sg/weather-climate/climate/weather-statistics
- Ng, E. (2010). Designing high-density cities: For social and environmental sustainability. London/Sterling: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Oke, T. R. (2002). Boundary layer climates. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., Tignor, M., Allen, S. K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., et al. (2014). Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. (2017). World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables. New York: United Nations. https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Publications/Files/WPP2017_KeyFindings.pdf
- Wong, N. H., & Chen, Y. (2008). Tropical urban heat islands: Climate, buildings and greenery. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar