Conclusions and Recommendations
We have argued that solutions for cooler cities in hot climates must be addressed on all three of the levels discussed in this book. Urban cooling, with its associated high energy use and climate emissions, is influenced by building design, city form and green infrastructures, and overall urban energy systems. Choice of low-dense or high-rise is a key factor, which in addition impacts on embodied energy and carbon. Urban density and structure also have a large influence on transport needs, not discussed here; and all the above aggravate the growing urban heat island effects in many parts of the world. Our Asian cases present some contemporary research and innovative strategies that offer promising precedents for others. There are great challenges for city planners, policy makers and developers in cities of developing countries. Addressing the issue of cooler cities requires action across sectors and stakeholders in order to achieve comprehensive and integrated strategies.
Solutions exist, and many of them are not significantly more costly. Whereas traditional principles for ‘staying cool’ in hot climates have long been known, modern science, data and research are enabling designers to develop a range of new solutions, both at micro, meso and macro levels. Not least, our knowledge of climatology and of human comfort enable us to understand human needs for healthy urban environments. In view of global warming, growing urban heat production and urban heat island effects, this question is of increasing urgency for millions, especially lower income groups, and especially in the large cities of regions such as Asia.