Building on Achievements: Training Options for Gumbaynggirr Language Teachers
Introduction and Overview
Teachers of the Gumbaynggirr language in schools today did not grow up hearing their language, and most have no formal teaching qualification. Therefore, their training needs include language proficiency development as well as skills for language teaching (Poetsch, 2014). On both fronts the Gumbaynggirr community has achieved a great deal in recent decades. From a range of possible strategies for strengthening languages (McIvor, 2009), Gumbaynggirrr people have selected ones that are most suited to their context. They have both driven and taken opportunities as they have arisen from government and university support.
The first and most proven action Gumbaynggirr people took was to establish their local community-controlled language and culture centre, which has done extensive research, compiled numerous resources, and began teaching adults their language in 1997 (Ash, Hooler, Williams, & Walker, 2010). A second important action has been Gumbaynggirr people’s...
- Aboriginal Affairs NSW (2013). Opportunity, choice, healing, responsibility, empowerment (OCHRE). New South Wales Government plan for Aboriginal affairs: education, employment, accountability. Sydney: Aboriginal Affairs, Office of Communities, NSW Department of Education and Communities.Google Scholar
- Amery, R. (2007). Aboriginal language habitat in research and tertiary education. In G. Leitner & I. G. Malcolm (Eds.), The habitat of Australia’s Aboriginal languages: past, present and future (pp. 327–353). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
- Ash, A., Hooler, P., Williams, G., & Walker, K. (2010). Maam ngawaala: Biindu ngaawa nyanggan bindaayili (Language centres: keeping language strong). In J. Hobson, K. Lowe, S. Poetsch & M. Walsh (Eds.), Re-awakening languages: theory and practice in the revitalisation of Australia’s Indigenous languages (pp. 106–118). Sydney: Sydney University Press.Google Scholar
- Australian Government Department of Communications and the Arts (2016a). Annual report on Indigenous languages stream funding recipients. Canberra: Author.Google Scholar
- Australian Government Department of Communications and the Arts (2016b). Indigenous languages support fact sheet. Canberra: Author.Google Scholar
- Board of Studies NSW (2003). Aboriginal languages K-10 syllabus. Sydney: Author. Retrieved from http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/syllabus_sc/languages.html.Google Scholar
- Board of Studies Teaching and Educational Standards NSW (2015). Aboriginal languages Stage 6 content endorsed course syllabus. Sydney: Author. Retrieved from http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/syllabus_hsc/aboriginal-languages.html.Google Scholar
- Cipollone, J. (2010). Aboriginal languages programs in TAFE NSW: delivery initiatives and strategies. In J. Hobson, K. Lowe, S. Poetsch & M. Walsh (Eds.), Re-awakening languages: theory and practice in the revitalisation of Australia’s Indigenous languages (pp. 170–180). Sydney: Sydney University Press.Google Scholar
- Giacon, J., & Simpson, J. (2011). Teaching Indigenous languages at universities. In J. Hajek, C. Nettelbeck & A. Woods (Eds.), Next step: introducing the languages and cultures network for Australian universities, inaugural colloquium, The University of Melbourne, September 26–28 (pp. 61–73). Melbourne: LCNAU. Retrieved from http://www.lcnau.org/proceedings.Google Scholar
- Hinton, L. (2012). Language revitalisation from documentation: heroes and programs. Paper presented at the Australian Institute for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies Seminar Series, March 26, Canberra, Australia. Retrieved fromhttps://vimeo.com/39681092.
- Hinton, L., Vera, M., & Steele, N. (2002). How to keep your language alive: a commonsense approach to one-on-one language learning. Berkeley: Heyday Books.Google Scholar
- Hobson, J. (2004). Learning to speak again: towards the provision of appropriate training for the revitalisation of Indigenous Australian languages in New South Wales. In J. A. Argenter & R. McKenna Brown (Eds.), On the margins of nations: endangered languages and linguistic rights. Proceedings of the eighth Foundation for Endangered Languages conference, Barcelona, October 1–3 (pp. 53–57). Bath: Foundation for Endangered Languages.Google Scholar
- Hobson, J. (2006). Who will teach our languages? In N. Parbury & R. Craven (Eds.), Aboriginal studies: making the connections. Collected papers of the 12th National Aboriginal Studies Association conference (pp. 166–174). Bankstown: ASA. November 2–3.Google Scholar
- Hobson, J. (2008a). Towards a model for training Indigenous languages educators in Australia. Paper presented at the Koori Centre Lecture Series, April 11, 2008, The University of Sydney e-Scholarship Repository. Retrieved from http://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/handle/2123/2323.
- Hobson, J. (2008b). Training teachers for Indigenous languages education: what’s happening overseas? In R. Amery & J. Nash (Eds.), Warra wiltaniappendi: strengthening languages. Proceedings of the Indigenous Languages conference, Adelaide, September 25–27, 2007 (pp. 1–9). Adelaide: University of Adelaide.Google Scholar
- Hobson, J. (2011). How do you teach a language with no teachers? Paper presented at the 2nd international conference on Language Documentation and Conservation: strategies for moving forward, University of Hawai’i, Manoa, February 11–13. Retrieved from http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10125/5211.
- Hobson, J. (2014). Potholes in the road to an initial teacher training degree for Australian revival languages. In C. Travis, J. Hajek, C. Nettelbeck, E. Beckmann, & A. Lloyd-Smith (Eds.), Policies, practices and research in university language and culture programs. Selected proceedings of the languages and cultures network for Australian universities colloquium (pp. 193–206). Australian National University, July 3–5, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.lcnau.org/proceedings/.
- Hobson, J., Oakley, K., Jarrett, M., Jackson, M., & Harris, N. (2017). Bridging the gap in Indigenous Australian languages teacher education. In P. Whitinui, C. Rodriguez de France & O. McIvor (Eds.), Promising practices in Indigenous teacher education. Singapore: Springer.Google Scholar
- Hudson, J., & McConvell, P. (1984). Keeping language strong: report of the pilot study for the Kimberley Language Resource Centre. Halls Creek: Kimberley Language Resource Centre.Google Scholar
- McIvor, O. (2009). Strategies for Indigenous language revitalization and maintenance. Encyclopedia of language and literacy development (pp. 1–12). London: Canadian Language and Literary Research Network.Google Scholar
- Morelli, S. (2015). Gumbaynggir dictionary and learner’s grammar. Bijaarr jandaygam, ngawa gugaarrigam. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.Google Scholar
- New South Wales Department of Education and Training. (2005). My language, my country (30 min DVD documentary and teacher training resource). Sydney: Author.Google Scholar
- Poetsch, S. (2014). Why Aboriginal languages teaching sometimes works: a view from NSW. In C. Travis, J. Hajek, C. Nettelbeck, E. Beckmann, & A. Lloyd-Smith (Eds.), Policies, practices and research in university language and culture programs. Selected proceedings of the languages and cultures network for Australian universities colloquium (pp. 223–238). Australian National University, July 3–5, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.lcnau.org/proceedings/.
- Schmidt, A. (1990). The loss of Australia’s Aboriginal language heritage. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.Google Scholar
- Senior Secondary Assessment Board of South Australia (1996). Australia’s Indigenous languages framework. Wayville: Author.Google Scholar
- Wafer, J., & Lissarrague, A. (Eds.) (2008). A handbook of Aboriginal languages of New South wales and the Australian Capital Territory. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.Google Scholar
- Wilson, W., & Kamana, K. (2001). Mai loko mai o ka ‘i’ini: proceeding from a dream. The ‘aha punana leo connection in Hawaii’an language revitalization. In L. Hinton & K. Hale (Eds.), The green book of language revitalization in practice (pp. 147–178). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar