Self-guided Exploration of Virtual Learning Spaces
Virtual learning spaces provide the opportunity to create authentic, immersive and high-fidelity experiences for learners; often enhanced with new technology to increase the interaction and perception with the learning space. Instead of creating mock-ups in classrooms, educators are able to recreate a controlled replica of the real world, i.e. scenarios and situations can be created that are difficult or impossible to achieve otherwise. However, an unrestricted and unsupervised exploration imposes challenges to monitor the learner, offer supportive guidance and provide formative feedback. Preliminary studies demonstrated that different approaches are able to engage the learner, create an intrinsic motivation and therefore provide curiosity to drive the self-paced learning; yet the use-case-based exploration is not transferred to a framework including a comprehensive tool for education. In this chapter, we demonstrate the prototype of the nDiVE framework, which combines authentic education, gamification, emerging technology and design principles used in the game industry to create an engaging learning space for students and workers.
Support for the production of this publication has been provided by the Australian Government Office for Learning and Teaching (Grant: Development of an authentic training environment to support skill acquisition in logistics and supply chain management, ID: ID12-2498). The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the Australian Government Office for Learning and Teaching.
- Bates, A. T., & Sangra, A. (2011). Managing technology in higher education: Strategies for transforming teaching and learning. Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Biocca, F., & Delaney, B. (1995). Immersive virtual reality technology. In F. Biocca & M. Levy (Eds.), Communication in the age of virtual reality (pp. 57–124). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Brown, E., & Cairns, P. (2004). A grounded investigation of game Immersion. In CHI ’04 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1297–1300). New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. doi: 10.1145/985921.986048.
- Cummings, J. J., Bailenson, J. N., & Fidler, M. J. (2012). How immersive is enough? A foundation for a meta-analysis of the effect of immersive technology on measured presence. In Proceedings of the International Society for Presence Research Annual Conference.Google Scholar
- Danilicheva, P., Klimenko, S., Baturin, Y., & Serebrov, A. (2009). Education in virtual worlds: Virtual storytelling. In International Conference on CyberWorlds (pp. 333–338). IEEE.Google Scholar
- Ermi, L., & Mäyrä, F. (2005). Fundamental components of the gameplay experience: Analysing immersion. In Proceedings of DiGRA 2005 Conference: Changing Views – Worlds in Play. Retrieved from http://www.gamesconference.org/digra2005/viewabstract.php?id=267.
- Friedman, T. L. (2006). The world is flat: The globalized world in the twenty-first century. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
- Gibson, D., & Jackl, P. (2015). Theoretical considerations for game-based e-learning analytics. In T. Reiners, & L.C. Wood (Eds.), Gamification in education and business (pp. 403–416). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
- Gregory, S. (2011). Teaching higher education students with diverse learning outcomes in the virtual world of Second Life. In R. Hinrichs & C. Wankel (Eds.), Transforming virtual world learning, Cutting-edge technologies in higher education (Vol. 4, pp. 333–362). Teynampet, India: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
- Hebbel-Seeger, A. (2013). Pedagogical and psychological impacts of teaching and learning in virtual realities. In A. Hebbel-Seeger, T. Reiners, & D. Schäffer (Eds.), Synthetic worlds: Emerging technologies in education and economics. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Herrington, J. (2006). Authentic e-learning in higher education: Design principles for authentic learning environments and tasks. In T. Reeves & S. Yamashita (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2006 (pp. 3164–3173). Chesapeake, VA.Google Scholar
- Huotari, K., & Hamari, J. (2012). Defining gamification - A service marketing perspective. In MindTrek2012 (pp. 17–22). Tampere: Finland: ACM. Retrieved from http://delivery.acm.org/ 10.1145/2400000/2393137/p17-huotari.pdf?ip=220.127.116.11&id=2393137&acc=ACTIVE%20SERVICE&key=65D80644F295BC0D.51DB8D6762B6E365.4D4702B0C3E38B35.4D4702B0C3E38B35&CFID=466247267&CFTOKEN=34482705&__acm__=1401166669_50fc6bf23c53e28a9373422edc13ae31.
- Kapp, K. M. (2012). The Gamification of learning and instruction: Game-based methods and strategies for training and education (1st ed.). Pfeiffer.Google Scholar
- Landers, R. N., Bauer, K. N., Callan, R. C., & Armstrong, M. B. (2015). Psychological theory and the gamification of learning. In T. Reiners, & L.C. Wood (Eds.), Gamification in education and business (pp. 165–168). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
- McGonigal, J. (2011). Reality is broken: Why games make us better and how they can change the world (Reprint). Penguin Books.Google Scholar
- Mestre, D., & Vercher, J. L. (2011). Immersion and Presence. In P. Fuchs, G. Moreau, & P. Guitton (Eds.), Virtual reality: Concepts and technologies (pp. 93–102). London, U.K.: Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
- Oculus. (2013). About Oculus VR. Retrieved from http://www.oculusvr.com/company/.
- Palmer, F. (1995). Interpersonal communication and virtual reality: Mediating Interpersonal relationships. In F. Biocca & M. Levy (Eds.), Communication in the age of virtual reality (pp. 277–302). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Pederson, E. M. (1995). Storytelling and the art of teaching. Forum, 33(1)Google Scholar
- Reiners, T., Wood, L. C., & Gregory, S. (2014b). Experimental study on technology-induced authentic immersion in virtual worlds for education and vocational training. Report Curtin University.Google Scholar
- Slater, M. (2003). A note on presence terminology. Presence Connect, 3(3)Google Scholar
- Wood, L. C., & Reefke, H. (2010). Working with a diverse class: Reflections on the role of team teaching, teaching tools and technological support. In H. Huai, P. Kommers, & P. Isaías (Eds.), Presented at the IADIS international conference on international higher education (pp. 72–79) (IHE 2010).Google Scholar
- Wood, L. C., & Reiners, T. (2013). Game-based elements to upgrade bots to non-player characters in support of educators. In A. Hebbel-Seeger, T. Reiners, & D. Schäfer (Eds.), Synthetic worlds: Emerging technologies in education and economics (pp. 257–277). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
- Wood, L. C., Teräs, H., Reiners, T., & Gregory, S. (2013). The role of gamification and game-based learning in authentic assessment within virtual environments. In S. Frielick, N. Buissink-Smith, P. Wyse, J. Billot, J. Hallas, & E. Whitehead (Eds.), Research and Development in Higher Education: The Place of Learning and Teaching (Vol. 36, pp. 514–523). Auckland, New Zealand: Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia, Inc. http://www.herdsa.org.au/wp-content/uploads/conference/2013/HERDSA_2013_WOOD.pdf.