• Hongzhang ChenEmail author
Part of the Green Chemistry and Sustainable Technology book series (GCST)


High-solid and multi-phase bioprocess system refers to the system with more than 15% solid loading. Usually, the system is composed of solid, liquid, and gas phases. It has become the hot topic in bioprocess due to the merits of environmental friendly, water saving, and energy saving. However, “solid effect” caused by high-solid loading results in a series of problems such as high viscosity, high stirring energy consumption, and low conversion. In this chapter, overview of high-solid and multi-phase bioprocess, as well as some characteristics, is elaborated. Additionally, novel enhancement measures and integration concept for high-solid and multi-phase system are briefly introduced from the aspect of process engineering scientific theory.


High-solid and multi-phase bioprocess Solid effect Bioprocess intensification 


  1. 1.
    Liu ZH (2016) Process intensification of high solids enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of steam exploded straw. Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of SciencesGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Selig MJ, Thygesen LG, Felby C (2014) Correlating the ability of lignocellulosic polymers to constrain water with the potential to inhibit cellulose saccharification. Biotechnol Biofuels 7(1):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Roberts KM, Lavenson DM, Tozzi EJ et al (2011) The effects of water interactions in cellulose suspensions on mass transfer and saccharification efficiency at high solids loadings. Cellulose 18(3):759–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Felby C, Thygesen LG, Kristensen JB et al (2008) Cellulose–water interactions during enzymatic hydrolysis as studied by time domain NMR. Cellulose 15(5):703–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Modenbach AA, Nokes SE (2013) Enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass at high-solids loadings—a review. Biomass Bioenerg 56(38):526–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Um BH, Hanley TR (2008) A comparison of simple rheological parameters and simulation data for Zymomonas mobilis fermentation broths with high substrate loading in a 3-L bioreactor. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 145(1):29–38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Roche CM, Dibble CJ, Knutsen JS et al (2009) Particle concentration and yield stress of biomass slurries during enzymatic hydrolysis at high-solids loadings. Biotechnol Bioeng 104(2):290CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Viamajala S, Mcmillan J, Schell D et al (2009) Rheology of corn stover slurries at high solids concentrations—Effects of saccharification and particle size. Bioresource Technol 100(2):925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hodge DB, Karim MN, Schell DJ et al (2009) Model-based fed-batch for high-solids enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. App Biochemistry Biotechnol 152(1):88–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lu Y, Wang Y, Xu G et al (2010) Influence of high solid concentration on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of steam-exploded corn stover biomass. App Biochem Biotechnol 160(2):360–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pristavka A, Kodituvakky PA, Kozlov YP et al (2000) High-solids enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded willow without prior water washing. App Biocheme Microbiol 36(2):101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yang J, Zhang X, Yong Q et al (2010) Three-stage enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded corn stover at high substrate concentration. Bioresource Technol 102(7):4905–4908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhuang X, Qiang Y, Wei Q et al (2012) High consistency enzymatic saccharification of sweet sorghum bagasse pretreated with liquid hot water. Bioresource Technol 108(2):252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhang Y, Liu Y, Xu JL et al (2011) High solid and low enzyme loading based saccharification of agricultural biomass. In: Symposium on enzyme engineering in China. pp 345–353Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    García-Aparicio MP, Oliva JM, Manzanares P et al (2011) Second-generation ethanol production from steam exploded barley straw by Kluyveromyces marxianus CECT 10875. Fuel 90(4):1624–1630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Risio SD, Hu CS, Saville BA et al (2011) Large-scale, high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded poplar. Biofuel Bioprod Bior 5(6):609–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang J, Chu D, Huang J et al (2010) Simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation at high corn stover solids loading in a helical stirring bioreactor. Biotechnol Bioeng 105(4):718–728PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang X, Qin W, Paice MG et al (2009) High consistency enzymatic hydrolysis of hardwood substrates. Bioresource Technol 100(23):5890–5897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jørgensen H, Vibe-Pedersen J, Larsen J et al (2007) Liquefaction of lignocellulose at high-solids concentrations. Biotechnol Bioeng 96(5):862–870CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Roche CM, Dibble CJ, Stickel JJ (2009) Laboratory-scale method for enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass at high-solids loadings. Biotechnol Biofuels 2(1):28CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dasari RK, Dunaway K, Berson RE (2008) A scraped surface bioreactor for enzymatic saccharification of pretreated corn stover slurries. Energ Fuel 23(1):492–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Process EngineeringChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations