Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy

  • Kaname KanaiEmail author


Inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES) is a technique that probes unoccupied electronic states between the Fermi level (EF) and the vacuum level of a material Woodruff et al. (J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 1:1104–1110, 1983 [1]).


Unoccupied electronic states Surface states K-resolved inverse photoemission spectroscopy Resonant inverse photoemission spectroscopy Spin-resolved inverse photoemission spectroscopy 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and TechnologyTokyo University of ScienceNoda, ChibaJapan

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