Surface Sensitive Scanning Electron Microscopy
Secondary electron (SE) emission reflects the topmost structure and chemical state of the sample surface. However, surface contaminants deposited during SEM observation hinder obtaining information of the topmost surface in a conventional SEM instrument. To obtain information of topmost surfaces, an ultrahigh vacuum environment (10−8 Pa or lower) as well a clean sample is necessary.
KeywordsSurface Atomic steps Reconstructed structure Edge contrast Graphene
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