Advertisement

Ameliorating Salt Stress in Crops Through Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria

  • Sana Ullah
  • Muhammad Baqir Hussain
  • Muhammad Yahya Khan
  • Hafiz Naeem AsgharEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Abiotic stresses are emerging vicious environmental factors limiting agricultural productivity around the world, while food demand is increasing with growing population. Among these abiotic stresses, salt stress is a serious threat to put down crop production especially in arid and semiarid regions of the world. Therefore, some serious steps are required to stop or slow down the lethal effects of salinity for ensuring food security. Various strategies are adopted to tackle the deleterious impacts of salinity to crops including breeding techniques and genetic engineering, but these techniques have their level of significance and cannot satisfy the whole demand. However, some biological strategies are cost-effective, environment friendly, and easy to adopt/operate. In this scenario, the use of various microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, algae) to enhance salinity resilience in crops is encouraged due to their vital interactions with each other and crop plants. Bacteria are widely used to mitigate deleterious impacts of high salinity on crop plants because they possess various direct and indirect plant beneficial characteristics including exopolysaccharide and siderophore production, biofilm formation, phosphate solubilization, induced systemic resistance, and enhanced nutrient uptake, and they act as biocontrol agents to protect crop plants from many diseases by killing pathogens. This chapter focuses on the negative effects of high salinity on plants, bacterial survival in salt stress, and their mechanisms to mitigate salinity stress and the role of beneficial microbes to enhance crop tolerance against salinity stress.

Keywords

Salinity Rhizobacteria Crop production Stress amelioration 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful for the support and encouragement by the colleagues from the Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

References

  1. Ahmad M, Zahir ZA, Asghar HN et al (2011) Inducing salt tolerance in mung bean through co-inoculation with rhizobia and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase. Can J Microbiol 57:578–589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad M, Zahir ZA, Khalid M (2013) Efficacy of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains to improve physiology, ionic balance and quality of mung bean under salt-affected conditions on farmer’s fields. Plant Physiol Biochem 63:170–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed M, Qamar I (2004) Productive rehabilitation and use of salt-affected land through afforestation (a review). Sci Vis 9:1–14Google Scholar
  4. Ahmedm E, Holmstrom SJ (2014) Siderophores in environmental research: roles and applications. Microb Biotechnol 7:196–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alamri SA, Mostafa YS (2009) Effect of nitrogen supply and Azospirillum brasilense Sp-248 on the response of wheat to seawater irrigation. Saudi J Biol Sci 16:101–107PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Allakhverdiev SI, Sakamoto A, Nishiyama Y et al (2000) Ionic and osmotic effects of NaCl induced inactivation of photosystems I and II in Synechococcus sp. Plant Physiol 123:1047–1056PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arshad M, Frankenberger WT Jr (2002) Ethylene: agricultural sources and applications. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York, p 342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ashraf M (2002) Salt tolerance of cotton: some new advances. Crit Rev Plant Sci 21:1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ashraf M (2004) Some important physiological selection criteria for salt tolerance in plants. Flora 199:361–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ashraf M, Harris PJC (2004) Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants. Plant Sci 166:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ashraf M, Hasnain S, Berge O et al (2004) Inoculating wheat seedlings with exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria restricts sodium uptake and stimulates plant growth under salt stress. Biol Fertil Soils 40:157–162Google Scholar
  12. Ashraf M, Hassan S, Hussain F (2005) Exo-polysaccharides (EPS) producing bacteria in improving physic-chemical characteristics of the salt-affected soil. In: Iftikhar AR et al (eds) Proc int conf environmentally sustainable development (ESDew-2005), Abbottabad, Pakistan. COMSAT Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad. 2005Google Scholar
  13. Ashraf M, Hasnain S, Berge O (2006) Effect of exo-polysaccharides producing bacterial inoculation on growth of roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown in a salt-affected soil. Int J Environ Sci Technol 3:43–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ayers RS, Westcot DW (1985) Water quality for agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  15. Azarbada H, Straalen NMV, Laskowskia R et al (2016) Susceptibility to additional stressors in metal-tolerant soil microbial communities from two pollution gradients. Appl Soil Ecol 98:233–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Azarmi F, Mozafari V, Dahaji PA et al (2016) Biochemical, physiological and antioxidant enzymatic activity responses of pistachio seedlings treated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and Zn to salinity stress. Acta Physiol Plant 38:21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Baath E, Diaz-Ravina M, Bakken LR (2005) Microbial biomass, community structure and metal tolerance of a naturally Pb-enriched forest soil. Microb Ecol 50:496–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Baniaghil N, Arzanesh MH, Ghorbanli M et al (2013) The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on growth parameters, antioxidant enzymes and microelements of canola under salt stress. J Appl Environ Biol Sci 3:17–27Google Scholar
  19. Bano A, Fatima M (2009) Salt tolerance in Zea mays (L.) following inoculation with Rhizobium and Pseudomonas. Biol Fertil Soils 45:405–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Barea JM, Pozo M, Azcon R et al (2005) Microbial co-operation in the rhizosphere. J Exp Bot 56:1761–1778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Batool R, Hasnain S (2005) Growth stimulatory effects of Enterobacter and Serratia isolated from biofilms on plant growth and soil aggregation. Biotechnology 4:347–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Beresford Q, Bekle H, Phillips H et al (2001) The salinity crisis: landscapes, communities and politics. University of Western Australia Press, CrawleyGoogle Scholar
  23. Bhatnagar M, Bhatnagar A (2001) Biotechnological potential of desert algae. In: Trivedi PC (ed) Algal biotechnology. Pointer Publ, Jaipur, pp 338–356Google Scholar
  24. Blaylock AD (1994) Soil salinity, salt tolerance and growth potential of horticultural and landscape plants. Co-operative Extension Service, University of Wyoming, Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, College of Agriculture, LaramieGoogle Scholar
  25. Boston RS, Viitanen PV, Vierling E (1996) Molecular chaperones and protein folding in plants. Plant Mol Biol 32:191–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Breedveld MW, Miller KJ (1994) Cyclic b-glucans of members of the family Rhizobiaceae. Microbiol Rev 58:145–161PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Breedveld MW, Miller KJ (1995) Synthesis of glycerophosphorylated cyclic (1,2)-b-glucans in Rhizobium meliloti strain 1021 after osmotic shock. Microbiology 141:583–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bresler E, Dagan G, Hanks RJ (1982) Statistical analysis of crop yield under controlled line-source irrigation. Soil Sci Soc Am J 46:841–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bridgman H, Dragovish D, Dodson J (eds) (2008) The Australian physical environment. Oxford University Press, South MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  30. Cao Y, Tian Y, Gao L et al (2016) Attenuating the negative effects of irrigation with saline water on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) by application of straw biological-reactor. Agric Water Manag 163:169–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chen M, Wei H, Cao J et al (2007) Expression of Bacillus subtilis proAB genes and reduction of feedback inhibition of proline synthesis increases proline production and confers osmotolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. J Biochem Mol Biol 40:396–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Chinnusamy V, Zhu J, Zhu et al (2006) Gene regulation during cold acclimation in plants. Physiol Plant 126:52–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chookietwattana K, Maneewan K (2012) Selection of efficient salt-tolerant bacteria containing ACC deaminase for promotion of tomato growth under salinity stress. Soil Environ 31:30–36Google Scholar
  34. Creus CM, Sueldo RJ, Barassi CA (1997) Shoot growth and water status in Azospirillum-inoculated wheat seedlings grown under osmotic and salt stresses. Plant Physiol Biochem 35:939–944Google Scholar
  35. Da Costa MS, Santos H, Gallinski EA (1998) An overview of the role and diversity of compatible solutes in Bacteria and Archaea. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 61:117–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Dardanelli MS, Cordoba FJF, Espuny MR et al (2008) Effect of Azospirillum brasilense coinoculated with Rhizobium on Phaseolus vulgaris flavonoids and nod factor production under salt stress. Soil Biol Biochem 40:2713–2721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Davey ME, Toole GA (2000) Microbial biofilms: from ecology to molecular genetics. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 64:847–867PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Esringua A, Kaynarb D, Turanc M et al (2016) Ameliorative effect of humic acid and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on hungarian vetch plants under salinity stress. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 47:602–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fan P, Chen D, He Y et al (2016) Alleviating salt stress in tomato seedlings using Arthrobacter and Bacillus megaterium isolated from the rhizosphere of wild plants grown on saline-alkaline lands. Int J Phytoremediation 18:1113–1121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. FAO (2009) High level expert forum – how to feed the world in 2050. Economic and Social Development Department, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  41. Garcia-Fraile P, Menendez E, Rivas R (2015) Role of bacterial biofertilizers in agriculture and forestry. AIMS Bioeng 2:183–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Geremia RA, Cavaignac S, Zorreguieta A et al (1987) A Rhizobium meliloti mutant that forms ineffective pseudonodules in alfalfa produces exopolysaccharide but fails to form b-(1,2)-glucan. J Bacteriol 169:880–884PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ghafoor A, Muhammed S, Rauf A (1985) Field studies on the reclamation of the Gandhra saline-sodic soil. Pak J Agric Sci 22:154–162Google Scholar
  44. Glick BR, Penrose DM, Li J (1998) A model for the lowering of plant ethylene concentration by plant growth promoting bacteria. J Theory Biol 190:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Golpayegani A, Tilebeni HG (2011) Effect of biological fertilizers on biochemical and physiological parameters of basil (Ociumum basilicm L.) medicine plant. Am Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci 11:445–450Google Scholar
  46. Grover M, Ali SZ, Sandhya V et al (2011) Role of microorganisms in adaptation of agriculture crops to abiotic stresses. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 27:1231–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Guy CL (1990) Cold acclimation and freezing stress tolerance: role of protein metabolism. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 41:187–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Habib SH, Kausar H, Saud HM (2016) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria enhance salinity stress tolerance in okra through ros-scavenging enzymes. Bio Med Res Int. doi.org/10.1155/2016/6284547Google Scholar
  49. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (1999) Free radicals in biology and medicine. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  50. Hamdali H, Bouizgarne B, Hafidi M (2008) Screening for rock phosphate solubilizing Actinomycetes from Moroccan phosphate mines. Appl Soil Ecol 38:12–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Han HS, Lee KD (2005) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria effect on antioxidant status, photosynthesis, mineral uptake and growth of lettuce under soil salinity. Res J Agric Biol Sci 1:210–215Google Scholar
  52. Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M, Islam MN (2009) Performance of four irrigated rice varieties under different levels of salinity stress. Int J Integr Biol 6:85–90Google Scholar
  53. Hasegawa P, Bressan RA, Zhu JK (2000) Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 51:463–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hassan AA, Mahgoub SAM (2011) Salt inducible-proteins and conjugal gene transfer of halotolerant staphylococcus isolated from salinity soil. Egypt J Genet Cytol 40:263–280Google Scholar
  55. Haynes RJ, Swift RS (1990) Stability of soil aggregates in relation to organic constituents and soil water content. J Soil Sci 41:73–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. He YH, Peng YJ, Wu ZS (2015) Survivability of Pseudomonas putida RS-198 in liquid formulations and evaluation its growth-promoting abilities on cotton. Dang J Anim Plant Sci 3:180–189Google Scholar
  57. Hezayen FF, Younis MAM, Hagaggi NSA (2010) Oceanobacillus aswanensis strain FS10 sp. Nov., an extremely halotolerant bacterium isolated from salted fish sauce in Aswan City, Egypt. Glob J Mol Sci 5:1–6Google Scholar
  58. Horneck DA, Ellsworth JW, Hopkins BG (2007) Managing salt-affected soils for crop production. A Pacific Northwest Extension Publication. Oregon State University, CorvallisGoogle Scholar
  59. Hossain MM, Das KC, Yesmin S et al (2016) Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in seed germination and root-shoot development of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under different salinity condition. Res Agric Livest Fish 3:105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hua SST, Tsai VY, Lichens MGM et al (1982) Accumulation of amino acids in Rhizobium sp. strain wr1001 in response to sodium chloride salinity. Appl Environ Microbiol 44:135–140PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Hulsebusch C, Wichern F, Hemann H et al (2007) Organic agriculture in the tropics and subtropics-status and perspectives, Supplement No. 89 to the Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics. Kassel University Press, KasselGoogle Scholar
  62. Hussain MB, Mehboob I, Zahir ZA et al (2009) Potential of Rhizobium spp. for improving growth and yield of rice. Soil Environ 28:49–55Google Scholar
  63. Hussain MB, Zahir ZA, Asghar HN et al (2014a) Can catalase and EPS producing rhizobia ameliorate drought in wheat. Int J Agric Biol 16:3–13Google Scholar
  64. Hussain MB, Zahir ZA, Asghar HN et al (2014b) Scrutinizing rhizobia to rescue maize growth under reduced water conditions. Soil Sci Soc Am J 78:538–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hussain MB, Zahir ZA, Asghar HN et al (2016) Efficacy of rhizobia for improving photosynthesis, productivity and mineral nutrition of maize. Clean Soil Air Water 44:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ilyas N, Bano A, Iqbal S (2012) Physiological, biochemical and molecular characterization of Azospirillum spp. isolated from maize under water stress. Pak J Bot 44:71–80Google Scholar
  67. Ingram-smith C, Miller KJ (1998) Effects of ionic and osmotic strength on the glucosyltransferase of Rhizobium meliloti responsible for cyclic b-(1,2)-glucan biosynthesis. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:1290–1297PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Jenkins MB, Virginia RA, Jarrel WM (1987) Rhizobial ecology of the woody legume mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) in the Sonoran desert. Appl Environ Microbiol 33:36–40Google Scholar
  69. Jha CK, Saraf M (2015) Plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR): a review. J Agric Res Dev 5:108–119Google Scholar
  70. Jha Y, Subramanian RB (2014) PGPR regulate caspase-like activity, programmed cell death, and antioxidant enzyme activity in paddy under salinity. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 20:201–207PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jha Y, Subramanian RB, Patel S (2011) Combination of endophytic and rhizospheric plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in Oryza sativa shows higher accumulation of osmoprotectant against saline stress. Acta Physiol Plant 33:797–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jittawuttipoka T, Planchon M, Spalla O et al (2013) Multidisciplinary evidences that Synechocystis PCC6803 exopolysaccharides operate in cell sedimentation and protection against salt and metal stresses. PLoS One 8:e55564PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Joshi P, Bhatt AB (2011) Diversity and function of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria associated with wheat rhizosphere in North Himalayan region. Int J Environ Sci 1:1135–1143Google Scholar
  74. Jouyban Z (2012) The effects of salt stress on plant growth. Tech J Eng Appl Sci 2:7–10Google Scholar
  75. Kalinowski BE, Liermann LJ, Brantley SL et al (2000) X-ray photoelectron evidence for bacteria-enhanced dissolution of hornblende. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 64:1331–1343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Karabal E, Yucel M, Oktem HA (2003) Antioxidant responses of tolerant and sensitive barley cultivars to boron toxicity. Plant Sci 164:925–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kiani MZ, Sultan T, Ali A et al (2016) Application of ACC-deaminase containing PGPR improves sunflower yield under natural salinity stress. Pak J Bot 1:53–56Google Scholar
  78. Kim JT, Kim SD (2008) Suppression of bacterial wilt with Bacillus subtilis SKU48-2 strain. Korean J Microbiol Biotechnol 36:115–120Google Scholar
  79. Kloepper JW, Lifshitz R, Zablotwicz RM (1989) Free-living bacterial inocula for enhancing crop productivity. Trends Biotechnol 7:39–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Koca M, Bor M, Ozdemir F (2007) The effect of salt stress on lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzymes and proline content of sesame cultivars. Environ. Exp Bot 60:344–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kohler J, Caravaca F, Roldan A (2010) An AM fungus and a PGPR intensify the adverse effects of salinity on the stability of rhizosphere soil aggregates of Lactuca sativa. Soil Biol Biochem 42:429–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kraemer SM (2004) Iron oxide dissolution and solubility in the presence of siderophores. Aquat Sci 66:3–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lewandowski Z (2000) In: Evans LV (ed) Biofilms: recent advances in their study and control. Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam., 2000, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  84. Li P, Song A, Li Z et al (2008) Silicon ameliorates manganese toxicity by regulating manganese transport and antioxidant reactions in rice (Oryza sativa L.) Plant Soil 354:407–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Li HW, Zang BS, Deng XW et al (2011) Overexpression of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene OsTPS1 enhances abiotic stress tolerance in rice. Planta 234:1007–1018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Liaqat I, Sumbal F, Sabri AN (2009) Tetracycline and chloramphenicol efficiency against selected biofilm forming bacteria. Curr Microbiol 59:212–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Liu X, Luo Y, Mohamed OA et al (2014) Global transcriptome analysis of Mesorhizobium alhagi CCNWXJ12-2 under salt stress. BMC Microbiol. doi: 10.1186/s12866-014-0319-y
  88. Mahmood A, Turgay OC, Farooq M et al (2016) Seed biopriming with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: a review. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 92:fiw112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Manchanda G, Garg N (2008) Salinity and its effects on the functional biology of legumes. Acta Physiol Plant 30:595–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Marino R, Ponnaiah M, Krajewski P et al (2009) Addressing drought tolerance in maize by transcriptional profiling and mapping. Mol Gen Genomics 218:163–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Mayak S, Tirosh T, Glick BR (2004) Plant growth-promoting bacteria that confer resistance to water stress in tomatoes and peppers. Plant Sci 166:525–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. McDowell RW (ed) (2008) Environmental impacts of pasture-based farming. CAB International, OxfordshireGoogle Scholar
  93. Metwali EMR, Abdelmoneim TS, Bakheit MA (2015) Alleviation of salinity stress in Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants by inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Plant Omics J 8:449–460Google Scholar
  94. Miransaria M, Smith DL (2009) Alleviating salt stress on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Bradyrhizobium japonicum symbiosis, using signal molecule genistein. Eur J Soil Biol 45:146–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Moral AD, Prado B, Quesda E et al (1988) Numerical taxonomy of moderately halophilic Gram negative rods from an inland saltern. J Gen Microbiol 134:733–741Google Scholar
  96. Morgan PW, Drew MC (1997) Ethylene and plant responses to stress. Plant Physiol 100:620–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Munns R (2002) Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell Environ 25:239–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Munns R (2005) Genes and salt tolerance: bringing them together. New Phytol 167:645–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Munns R, Rawson HM (1999) Effect of salinity on salt accumulation and reproductive development in the apical meristem of wheat and barley. Aust J Plant Physiol 26:459–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Munns R, Husain S, Rivelli AR et al (2002) Avenues for increasing salt tolerance of crops, and the role of physiologically based selection traits. Plant Soil 247:93–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Nadeem SM, Zahir ZA, Naveed M et al (2009) Rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase confer salt tolerance in maize grown on salt-affected fields. Can J Microbiol 55:1302–1309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Nadeem SM, Zahir ZA, Naveed M, Nawaz S (2013) Mitigation of salinity-induced negative impact on the growth and yield of wheat by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in naturally saline conditions. Ann Microbiol 63(1):225–232Google Scholar
  104. Nadeem SM, Ahmad M, Naveed M et al (2016) Relationship between in vitro characterization and comparative efficacy of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for improving cucumber salt tolerance. Arch Microbiol 198:379–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Naveed M, Hussain MB, Zahir ZA et al (2014a) Drought stress amelioration in wheat through inoculation with Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN. Plant Growth Regul 73:121–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Naveed M, Mitter B, Thomas G et al (2014b) Increased drought stress resilience of maize through endophytic colonization by Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN and Enterobacter sp. FD 17. Environ Exp Bot 97:30–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Naz I, Bano A, Tamoor-ul-Hassan (2009) Isolation of phytohormones producing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from weeds growing in Khewra salt range, Pakistan and their implication in providing salt tolerance to Glycine max L. Afr J Biotechnol 8:5762–5766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Netondo GW, Onyango JC, Beck E (2004) Sorghum and salinity: II. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of sorghum under salt stress. Crop Sci 44:806–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Nia SH, Zarea MJ, Rejali F et al (2012) Yield and yield components of wheat as affected by salinity and inoculation with Azospirillum strains from saline or non-saline soil. J Saudi Soc Agric Sci 11:113–121Google Scholar
  110. Nicolaus B, Manca M, Lama L et al (2001) Lipid modulation by environmental stresses in two models of extremophiles isolated from Antarctica. Polar Biol 24:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Nishma KS, Adrisyanti B, Anusha SH et al (2014) Induced growth promotion under in vitro salt stress tolerance on Solanum lycopersicum by Fluorescent pseudomonads associated with rhizosphere. Int J Appl Sci Eng Res 3:422–430Google Scholar
  112. Oster JD, Shainberg I, Abrol IP (1996) Reclamation of salt-affected soil. In: Agassi M (ed) Soil erosion, conservation, and rehabilitation, vol 414. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 315–352Google Scholar
  113. Palaniyandi SA, Damodharan K, Yang SH et al (2014) Streptomyces sp. strain PGPA39 alleviates salt stress and promotes growth of ‘Micro Tom’ tomato plants. J Appl Microbiol 117:766–773PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Pandit A, Rai V, Bal S et al (2010) Combining QTL mapping and transcriptome profiling of bulked RILs for identification of functional polymorphism for salt tolerance genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.) Mol Gen Genomics 284:121–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Parida AK, Das AB (2005) Salt tolerance and salinity effect on plants: a review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 60:324–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Parvaiz A, Satyawati S (2008) Salt stress and phytobiochemical responses of plants: a review. Plant Soil Environ 54:89–99Google Scholar
  117. Patten CL, Glick BR (2002) Role of Pseudomonas putida indole acetic acid in development of the host plant root system. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:3795–3801PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Paul D, Nair S (2008) Stress adaptations in a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with increasing salinity in the coastal agricultural soils. J Basic Microbiol 48:378–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Pereira S, Zille A, Micheletti E et al (2009) Complexity of cyanobacterial exopolysaccharides: composition, structures, inducing factors and putative genes involved in their biosynthesis and assembly. FEMS Microbiol Rev 33:917–941PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Pratt LA, Kolter R (1998) Genetic analysis of Escherichia coli biofilm formation: roles of flagella, motility, chemotaxis and type I pili. Mol Microbiol 30:285–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Qadir M, Schubert S (2002) Degradation processes and nutrient constraints in sodic soils. Land Degrad Dev 13:275–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Qadir M, Quillerou, Nangia V et al (2014) Economics of salt-induced land degradation and restoration. Nat Res Forum 38:282–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Qurashi AW, Sabri AN (2011) Osmoadaptation and plant growth promotion by salt tolerant bacteria under salt stress. Afr J Microbiol Res 5:3546–3554Google Scholar
  124. Qurashi AW, Sabri AN (2012) Bacterial exopolysaccharide and biofilm formation stimulate chickpea growth and soil aggregation under salt stress. Braz J Microbiol:1183–1191. ISSN 1517-8382Google Scholar
  125. Qurashi AW, Sabri AN (2016) Induction of Osmotolerance by Staphylococcus sciuri HP3 in Lens esculenta Var. Masoor 93 under NaCl stress. Pak J Life Soc Sci 14:42–51Google Scholar
  126. Rajput L, Imran A, Mubeen F et al (2013) Salt-tolerant PGPR strain Planococcus rifietoensis promotes the growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivated in saline soil. Pak J Bot 45:1955–1962Google Scholar
  127. Ramadoss D, Lakkineni VK, Bose P (2013) Mitigation of salt stress in wheat seedlings by halotolerant bacteria isolated from saline habitats. Springer Plus 2:1–7Google Scholar
  128. Reddy PS, Thirulogachandar V, Vaishnavi CS et al (2011) Molecular characterization and expression of a gene encoding cytosolic Hsp90 from Pennisetum glaucum and its role in abiotic stress adaptation. Gene 474:29–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Rekha PD, Lai WA, Arun AB et al (2007) Effect of free and encapsulated Pseudomonas putida CC-FR2-4 and Bacillus subtilis CC-pg104 on plant growth under gnotobiotic conditions. Bioresour Technol 98:447–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Roohi A, Ahmed I, Iqbal M et al (2012) Preliminary isolation and characterization of halotolerant and halophilic bacteria from salt mines of Karak. Pakistan. Pak J Bot 44:365–370Google Scholar
  131. Rubiano-Labrador C, Bland C, Miotello G (2015) Salt stress induced changes in the exoproteome of the halotolerant bacterium Tistlia consotensis deciphered by proteogenomics. PLoS One. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135065
  132. Sahi C, Singh A, Kumar K et al (2006) Salt stress response in rice: genetics, molecular biology, and comparative genomics. Funct Integr Genomics 6:263–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Sairam RK, Tyagi A (2004) Physiology and molecular biology of salinity stress tolerance in plants. Curr Sci 86:407–421Google Scholar
  134. Salta M, Warton JA, Blache Y et al (2013) Marine biofilms on artificial surfaces: structure and dynamics. Environ Microbiol 15:2879–2893PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Salvi S, Tuberosa R (2005) To clone or not to clone plant QTLs: present and future challenges. Trends Plant Sci 10:297–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Sandhya V, Ali SZ, Grover M et al (2009) Alleviation of drought stress effects in sunflower seedlings by exopolysaccharides producing Pseudomonas putida strain P45. Biol Fertil Soils 46:17–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Santos H, da Costa MS (2002) Compatible solutes of organisms that live in hot saline environments. Environ Microbiol 4:501–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Santoyoa G, Hagelsiebb GM, Mosquedac MDCO et al (2016) Plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes. Microbiol Res 183:92–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Scotter DR (1978) Preferential solute movement through larger soil voids. I. Some computations using simple theory. Soil Res 16:257–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. See-Too WS, Convey P, Pearce DA et al (2016) Complete genome of Planococcus rifietoensis M8T, a halotolerant and potentially plant growth promoting bacterium. J Biotechnol 221:114–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Sen S, Chandrasekhar CN (2015) Effect of PGPR on enzymatic activities of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under salt stress. Asian J Plant Sci Res 5:44–48Google Scholar
  142. Shainberg I, Letey J (1984) Response of soils to sodic and saline conditions. Hilgardia 52:1–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Shanker AK, Venkateswarlu B (2011) Abiotic stress in plants–mechanisms and adaptations. In Tech, Rijeka, p ixCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Shrivastava P, Kumar R (2015) Soil salinity: a serious environmental issue and plant growth promoting bacteria as one of the tools for its alleviation. Saudi J Biol Sci 22:123–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Singh RP, Jha PN (2016) Alleviation of salinity-induced damage on wheat plant by an ACC deaminase-producing halophilic bacterium Serratia sp. SL-12 isolated from a salt lake. Symbiosis 69:101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Singh RP, Jha P, Jha PN (2015) The plant-growth-promoting bacterium Klebsiella sp. SBP-8 confers induced systemic tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum) under salt stress. J Plant Physiol 184:57–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Song JQ, Fujiyama H (1996) Ameliorative effects of potassium on rice and tomato subjected to sodium salinization. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 42:493–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Southard RJ, Buol SW (1988) Subsoil saturated hydraulic conductivity in relation to soil properties in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Soil Sci Soc Am J 52:1091–1094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Stajner D, Kevresan S, Gasic O et al (1997) Nitrogen and Azotobacter chroococcum enhance oxidative stress tolerance in sugar beet. Biol Plant 39:441–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Sutherland IW (2001) Biofilm exopolysaccharides: a strong and sticky framework. Microbiology 147:3–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Tester M, Davenport R (2003) Na+ tolerance and Na+ transport in higher plants. Ann Bot 91:503–527PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Tiwari S, Singh P, Tiwari R et al (2011) Salt-tolerant rhizobacteria-mediated induced tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and chemical diversity in rhizosphere enhance plant growth. Biol Fertil Soils 47:907–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Turan S, Cornish K, Kumar S (2012) Salinity tolerance in plants: breeding and genetic engineering. AJCS 6:1337–1348Google Scholar
  154. Upadhyay SK, Singh DP, Saikia R (2009) Genetic diversity of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from rhizosphere soils of wheat under saline condition. Curr Microbiol 59:489–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Valko M, Rhodes CJ, Moncol J et al (2006) Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Chem Biol Interact 160:1–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Van BF, Vranova E, Dat JF et al (2001) The role of active oxygen species in plant signal transduction. Plant Sci 161:405–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Vassileva M, Azcon R, Barea JM et al (1999) Effect of encapsulated cells of Enterobacter sp. on plant growth and phosphate uptake. Bioresour Technol 67:229–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Vejan P, Abdullah R, Khadiran T et al (2016) Role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in agricultural sustainability-a review. Molecules 21:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Ventosa A, Ramose A, Kocur M (1983) Moderately halophilic gram-positive cocci from hyper-saline environment. Syst Appl Microbiol 4:564–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Volker U, Engelmann S, Maul B et al (1994) Analysis of the induction of general stress proteins of Bacillus subtilis. Microbiology 140:741–752PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Walia H, Wilson C, Zeng L et al (2007) Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of salinity stressed japonica and indica rice genotypes during panicle initiation stage. Plant Mol Biol 63:609–623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Wang SY, Wang CY, Welburn AR (1990) Role of ethylene under stress conditions. In: Alscher R, Cumming J (eds) Stress responses in plants adaptation and acclimation mechanisms. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 147–173Google Scholar
  163. Wang Q, Dodd IC, Belimov AA et al (2016) Rhizosphere bacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1- carboxylate deaminase increase growth and photosynthesis of pea plants under salt stress by limiting Na+ accumulation. Funct Plant Biol 43:161–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Wu ZS, Zhao YF, Kaleem I et al (2011) Preparation of calcium-alginate microcapsuled microbial fertilizer coating Klebsiella oxytoca Rs-5 and its performance under salinity stress. Eur J Soil Biol 47:152–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Wu ZS, Guo LN, Qin SH et al (2012) Encapsulation of R. planticola Rs-2 from alginate-starch-bentonite and its controlled release and swelling behavior under simulated soil conditions. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 39:317–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Wu Z, Peng Y, Guo L et al (2014) Root colonization of encapsulated Klebsiella oxytoca Rs-5 on cotton plants and its promoting growth performance under salinity stress. Eur J Soil Biol 60:81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Yang J, Kloepper, Ryu CM (2009) Rhizosphere bacteria help plants tolerate abiotic stress. Trends Plant Sci 14:1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Yao L, Wu Z, Zheng Y et al (2010) Growth promotion and protection against salt stress by Pseudomonas putida Rs-198 on cotton. Eur J Soil Biol 46:49–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Yuan-yuan Z, Hai-tao Y, Zai-qiang S et al (2008) Physiochemical characters and ability to promote cotton germination of bacteria strains Rs-5 and Rs-198 under salt stress. Sci Agric Sin 41:1326–1332Google Scholar
  170. Zahran HH (1999) Rhizobium-legume symbiosis and nitrogen fixation under severe conditions and in an arid climate. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 63:968–989PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  171. Zhang JH, Liu YP, Pan QH et al (2006) Changes in membrane associated H+ − ATPase activities and amounts in young grape plants during the cross adaptation to temperature stresses. Plant Sci 170:768–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Zhang H, Kim MS, Sun Y et al (2008) Soil bacteria confer plant salt tolerance by tissue-specific regulation of the sodium transporter HKT1. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 21:737–744Google Scholar
  173. Zheng X, Chen B, Lu G et al (2009) Overexpression of a NAC transcription factor enhances rice drought and salt tolerance. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 379:985–989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Zhong-hong W, Ma J et al (2009) Identification of salt tolerant promoting growth bacteria Rs-198 and study on co-culture with Rs-5. Biotechnology 19:63–66Google Scholar
  175. Zhu JK (2002) Salt and drought stress signal transduction in plants. Annu Rev Plant Bol 53:247–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Zou N, Dort PJ, Marcar NE (1995) Interaction of salinity and rhizobial strains on growth and N2 fixation by Acacia ampliceps. Soil Biol Biochem 27:409–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sana Ullah
    • 1
  • Muhammad Baqir Hussain
    • 1
  • Muhammad Yahya Khan
    • 2
  • Hafiz Naeem Asghar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Soil and Environmental SciencesUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.University of AgricultureVehariPakistan

Personalised recommendations