Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Youhua Xie
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1018)


Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide in men and the ninth in women. It is also the second most common cause of cancer mortality. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. About 350 million people globally are chronically infected with HBV. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection accounts for at least 50% cases of HCC worldwide. Other non-HBV factors may increase HCC risk among persons with chronic HBV infection. Both indirect and direct mechanisms are involved in HCC oncogenesis by HBV. HCC-promoting HBV factors include long-lasting infection, high levels of HBV replication, HBV genotype, HBV integration, specific HBV mutants, and HBV-encoded oncoproteins (e.g., HBx and truncated preS2/S proteins). Recurrent liver inflammation caused by host immune responses during chronic HBV infection can lead to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis and accelerate hepatocyte turnover rate and promote accumulation of mutations. Major breakthroughs have been achieved in the prevention of HBV-associated HCC with HBV vaccines and antiviral therapies.


Chronic infection Cirrhosis Genotype Hepatitis B virus Hepatocellular carcinoma HBeAg HBsAg HBx Integration Mutation PreS/S 



The author would like to apologize for citing selected papers due to the space limit. This work was supported by the National Key Project for Infectious Diseases of China (2012ZX10002-006, 2012ZX10002012-003), National Basic Research Program of China (2012CB519002), and Natural Science Foundation of China (81472226).

No potential conflict of interest was disclosed.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology (Ministries of Education and Health), Shanghai Medical CollegeFudan UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

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