Archaeological Research in Kedah: Prehistoric and Proto-historic Sites

  • Zuraidah Hassan
  • Zuliskandar Ramli


Archaeological research has uncovered a wealth of data and significant information which particularly helped the country to have its early history accurately known. This study investigated the prehistoric and proto-historic period in Kedah based on previous research. The results of the study inspired various ideas about date and chronology, technology advancement, commerce, religious beliefs and social life. This study also found various excavation sites which have been identified as prehistoric and proto-historic sites. This study referred to previous research and has listed the prehistoric and proto-historic sites. The research was conducted using field research and library resources. The study revealed that, in research and excavation sites, various artefacts such as pottery, porcelain, stone, beads, glass, skeletons, temple objects and others have been found. In addition, issues such as religion, epigraphy, iconography, temples, trade and Indianisation process were also discussed and linked together with a variety of artefacts that were found in every excavation site. With the help of the government particularly and the private sector generally, the opening of the archaeological sites by local and foreign archaeological researchers has been made possible. Such studies have helped to add evidence to the history, civilisation and progress of the ancient society particularly in Kedah and Malaysia in general.


Archaeology Kedah Prehistoric Proto-historic 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zuraidah Hassan
    • 1
  • Zuliskandar Ramli
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of the Malay World and Civilisation (ATMA)Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)BangiMalaysia

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