Advertisement

Intra-Asian Chinese Migrations: A Historical Overview

  • Min Zhou
  • Gregor Benton
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter offers a historical overview of Chinese emigration. Zhou and Benton examine how centuries-old Chinese diasporas were formed to facilitate subsequent migrant flows and migrant resettlement. The authors do so with a focus on intra-Asian migrations to offer some points of reference from which to understand contemporary Chinese migrations across the globe. They argue that distinct streams of emigration from China and remigrations from the Chinese diaspora are contingent upon historical circumstances and influenced by the intersection of nation-state policies, global economic forces, and migrant socioeconomic networks.

References

  1. Abella, M. I. (1992). Contemporary Labor Migration from Asia: Policies and Perspectives of Sending Countries. In M. M. Kritz, L. L. Lim, & H. Zlotnik (Eds.), International Migration Systems: A Global Approach (pp. 263–278). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Abeyasekere, S. (1983). Slaves in Batavia: Insights from a Slave Register. In A. Reid (Ed.), Slavery, Bondage, and Dependency in Southeast Asia (pp. 286–314). New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  3. Andaya, B. W. (1997). Adapting to Political and Economic Change: Palembang in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries. In A. Reid (Ed.), The Last Stand of Asian Autonomies: Responses to Modernity in the Diverse States of Southeast Asia and Korea, 1750–1900 (pp. 187–215). London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnold, F., & Shah, N. M. (1986). Asia’s Labor Pipeline: An Overview. In F. Arnold & N. M. Shah (Eds.), Asian Labor Migration, Pipeline to the Middle East (pp. 3–16). Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  5. Azuma, E. (1999). Brief Historical Overview of Japanese Emigration, 1868–1998. In International Nikkei Research Project, First-Year Report, 1998–99 (pp. 6–8). Los Angeles: Japanese American Museum.Google Scholar
  6. Battistella, G. (1995). Philippine Overseas Labour: From Export to Management. Asean Economic Bulletin (Special Focus: Labor Migration in Asia), 12(2), 257–273.Google Scholar
  7. Blythe, W. (1969). The Impact of Chinese Secret Societies in Malaya: A Historical Study. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bretts, A. (2012). The Migration Industry in Global Migration Governance. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, I. (1999). History [of the Philippines]. In The Far East and Australia, 1999 (13th ed., pp. 1011–1015). London: Europe Publications Limited.Google Scholar
  10. Burusratanaphand, W. (1995). Chinese Identity in Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science, 23(1), 43–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chan, K. W. (1994). Cities with Invisible Walls: Reinterpreting Urbanization in Post-1949 China. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Chan, K. B., & Tong, C. K. (Eds.). (2001). Alternate Identities: The Chinese of Contemporary Thailand. Leiden/Singapore: Brill and Times Academic Press.Google Scholar
  13. Chew, S.-B., & Chew, R. (1995). Immigration and Foreign Labor in Singapore. ASEAN Economic Bulletin, 12(2), 191–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chin, K.-L. (1999). Smuggled Chinese: Clandestine Immigration to the United States. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Chiu, S. W.-K. (2015). Students from Mainland China in Hong Kong [內地生在香港]. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, Chinese University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  16. Cribb, R. (1999). History [of Indonesia]. In The Far East and Australia, 1999 (13th ed., pp. 415–420). London: Europe Publications Limited.Google Scholar
  17. Fitzgerald, C. P. (1965). The Third China: The Chinese in South-East Asia. London: Angus & Robertson.Google Scholar
  18. Fitzgerald, C. P. (1999). The History of China up to 1966. In The Far East and Australia, 1999 (13th ed., pp. 230–234). London: Europe Publications Limited.Google Scholar
  19. Forbes, D. (1999). Toward the ‘Pacific Century’: Integration and Disintegration in the Pacific Basin. In The Far East and Australia, 1999 (13th ed., pp. 35–43). London: Europe Publications Limited.Google Scholar
  20. Gammeltoft-Hansen, T., & Sørensen, N. N. (Eds.). (2013). The Migration Industry and the Commercialization of International Migration. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Goldstone, J. A. (1997). A Tsunami on the Horizon? The Potential for International Migration from the People’s Republic of China. In P. J. Smith (Ed.), Human Smuggling: Chinese Migrant Trafficking and the Challenge to America’s Immigration Tradition (pp. 48–75). Washington, DC: The Center for Strategic and International Studies.Google Scholar
  22. Hugo, G. G. (1998). The Demographic Underpinnings of Current and Future International Migrations in Asia. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 7(1), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kyo, S. (1999). Japan. In L. Pan (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas (pp. 332–339). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Lee, J. S. (1998). The Impact of the Asian Financial Crisis on Foreign Workers in Japan. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 7(2-3), 145–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Li, P. (1998). Chinese in Canada. Toronto: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Li, M. (2002). The History of the Chinese in Europe [欧洲华侨华人史]. Beijing: Overseas Chinese Press.Google Scholar
  27. Li, Z., Xue, D., Lyons, M., & Brown, A. M. B. (2008). The African Enclave of Guangzhou: A Case Study of Xiaobeilu. Acta Geographica Sinica, 63(2), 208–218.Google Scholar
  28. Liao, D. (2002). Fujian Haiwai Jiaotong Shi [福建海外交通史]. Fuzhou: Fujian People’s Press.Google Scholar
  29. Liu, H. (2005). New Migrants and the Revival of Overseas Chinese Nationalism. Journal of Contemporary China, 14(43), 291–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ma, L. J. C. (2003). Space, Place and Transnationalism in the Chinese Diaspora. In J. C. Ma Laurence & C. Cartier (Eds.), The Chinese Diaspora: Space, Place, Mobility, and Identity (pp. 1–49). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  31. Ma, L. J. C., & Cartier, C. (Eds.). (2003). The Chinese Diaspora: Space, Place, Mobility, and Identity. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  32. Martin, P. L., Mason, A., & Tsay, C.-L. (1995). Overview. ASCEAN Economic Bulletin, 12(12), 117–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Massey, D. S., Arango, J., Hugo, G., Kouaouci, A., Pellegrino, A., & Edward Taylor, J. (1994). An Evaluation of International Migration Theory: The North American Case. Population and Development Review, 20(4), 699–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Melendy, H. B. (1977). Asians in America: Filipinos, Koreans, and East Indians. Boston: Twayne.Google Scholar
  35. Myers, W. H., III. (1997). Of Qinqing, Qinshu, Guanxi, and Shetou: The Dynamic Element of Chinese Irregular Population Movement. In P. J. Smith (Ed.), Human Smuggling: Chinese Migrant Trafficking and the Challenge to America’s Immigration Tradition (pp. 93–126). Washington, DC: The Center for Strategic and International Studies.Google Scholar
  36. Overseas Chinese Affairs Council. (2012). 2011 Overseas Chinese Economy Year Book. Taipei: Overseas Chinese Affairs Council in Taiwan. http://www.ocac.gov.tw/dep3new/yearbook/100/100OCA_2/index.html. Accessed 16 Oct 2016.
  37. Overseas Community Affairs Council. (2013). Statistical Yearbook of the Overseas Compatriot. Taipei: Overseas Community Affairs Council. http://www.ocac.gov.tw/public/public.asp?selno¼951&no¼951&level¼B#1. Accessed 16 Oct 2016.
  38. Pan, L. (Ed.). (1999). The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Poston, D. L., Jr., & Wong, J. H. (2016). The Chinese Diaspora: The Current Distribution of the Overseas Chinese Population. Chinese Journal of Sociology, 2(3), 348–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Poston, D. L., Jr., Mao, M. X., & Yu, M.-Y. (1994). The Global Distribution of the Overseas Chinese Around 1990. Population and Development Review, 20(3), 631–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Purcel, V. (1965). The Chinese in Southeast Asia. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Rosenblum, M. R., & Ruiz Soto, A. G. (2015). An Analytis of Unauthorized Immigrants in the United States by Country and Region of Birth (A Report). Washington, DC: Immigration Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  43. Reid, A. (1996). Sojourners and Settlers: Histories of Southeast Asia and the Chinese. St. Leonard: Allen & Unwin for Asian Studies Association of Australia.Google Scholar
  44. Reid, A. (1997). Introduction. In A. Reid (Ed.), The Last Stand of Asian Autonomies: Responses to Modernity in the Diverse States of Southeast Asia and Korea, 1750–1900 (pp. 1–26). London: St. Martin’s Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Reid, A. (1999). Chinese and Southeast Asian Interactions. In L. Pan (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas (pp. 50–52). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  46. See, C. (1960). Chinese Clanship in the Philippines. Journal of Asian Studies, 12(1), 224–246.Google Scholar
  47. Skeldon, R. (1995). Labor Migration to Hong Kong. ASCEAN Economic Bulletin, 12(12), 201–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Skinner, G. W. (1957). Chinese Society in Thailand. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Smith, P. J. (1997). Chinese Migrant Trafficking: A Global Challenge. In P. J. Smith (Ed.), Human Smuggling: Chinese Migrant Trafficking and the Challenge to America’s Immigration Tradition (pp. 1–22). Washington, DC: The Center for Strategic and International Studies.Google Scholar
  50. Smith, R. (1999). History [of Viet Nam]. In The Far East and Australia, 1999 (13th ed., pp. 1167–1170). London: Europe Publications Limited.Google Scholar
  51. Stewart, W. (1951). Chinese Bondage in Peru: A History of the Chinese Coolie in Peru, 1849–1874. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Storry, R. (1999). History [of Japan] up to 1952. In The Far East and Australia, 1999 (13th ed., pp. 462–465). London: Europe Publications Limited.Google Scholar
  53. Trocki, C. A. (1997). Chinese Pioneering in Eighteenth-Century Southeast Asia. In A. Reid (Ed.), The Last Stand of Asian Autonomies: Responses to Modernity in the Diverse States of Southeast Asia and Korea, 1750–1900 (pp. 27–84). London: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  54. Tsay, C.-L. (1995). Taiwan. ASCEAN Economic Bulletin, 12(12), 175–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Turnbull, C. M. (1999). History [of Singapore]. In The Far East and Australia, 1999 (13th ed., pp. 1053–1058). London: Europe Publications Limited.Google Scholar
  56. Tyner, J. A. (2000). Global Cities and Circuits of Global Labor: The Case of Manila, Philippines. The Professional Geographer, 52(1), 61–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wang, G. (1991). China and the Chinese Overseas. Singapore: Times Academic Press.Google Scholar
  58. Wickberg, E. (1999a). Localism and the Organization of Overseas Chinese Migration in the Nineteenth Century. In G. G. Hamilton (Ed.), Cosmopolitan Capitalists: Hong Kong and the Chinese Diaspora at the End of the 20th Century (pp. 35–55). Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  59. Wickberg, E. (1999b). The Philippines. In L. Pan (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas (pp. 187–199). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Yang, P. (2016). International Mobility and Educational Desire: Chinese Foreign Talent Students in Singapore. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yeoh, B. S. A., & Lam, T. (2016). Immigration and Its (Dis)Contents: The Challenges of Highly Skilled Migration in Globalizing Singapore. American Behavioral Scientist. doi: 10.1177/0002764216632831.
  62. Yeoh, B. S. A., & Lin, W. (2012, April). Rapid Growth in Singapore’s Immigrant Population Brings Policy Challenges. Migration Information Source.Google Scholar
  63. Zai, L. (2001). Demography of Illicit Emigration from China: A Sending Country Perspective. Sociological Forum, 16(4), 677–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zeng, S. (1998). Marine Migration to Taiwan and the Philippines in the Qing Dynasty [东洋航路移民:明清海洋移民台湾与菲律宾的比较研究]. Nanchang: Jiangxi Higher Education Press.Google Scholar
  65. Zhu, G. (1994). Overseas Emigration from China: A Historical Study of International Migration. Shanghai: Fudan University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Zhuang, G. (1989). The Feudal Chinese State and Its Policies Toward Overseas Chinese [中国封建政府的华侨政策]. Xiamen: Xiamen University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Zhuang, G. (2001). The Relationships Between Chinese Overseas and China [华侨华人与中国的关系]. Xiamen: Xiamen University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Zhou, M. (2006). The Chinese Diaspora and International Migration. Social Transformations in Chinese Societies, 1(1), 161–190.Google Scholar
  69. Zhou, M., Xu, T., & Shenasi, S. (2016). Entrepreneurship and Interracial Dynamics: A Case Study of Self-Employed Africans and Chinese in Guangzhou, China. Ethnic and Racial Studies. doi: 10.1080/01419870.2015.1125008.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Min Zhou
    • 1
  • Gregor Benton
    • 2
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Cardiff UniversityCardiffUK

Personalised recommendations