Smoking cessation is the only most effective and easily accessible way to bladder cancer prevention by an individual. Smoking shows dose-response relationship with bladder cancer incidence. However, the risk of bladder cancer remained even after quitting smoking, with 50% chance in 20-year ex-smokers.
Avoidance of occupational exposure of carcinogen is also very effective; however it has limitation to application. Despite many occupational carcinogens revealed and occupational protection and hygiene improved, overall bladder cancer incidence was not significantly different but somewhat increased. However, stopping the use of 4-DAP has dramatically decreased bladder cancer incidence in hairdresser.
Fruit and vegetable intake has protective effect on bladder cancer incidence. Relationship between black tea intake and risk of bladder cancer has some controversies. Other dietary factors such as coffee, alcohol, milk, fish, and red meat and vitamins C, D, and E also need evidence acquisition for making decision.
Smoking cessation Life style modification Occupational exposure avoidance
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