Symptoms and Work-Up
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The diagnostic process of bladder cancer consists of checking the medical history, urine cytology, cystoscopic exam, and imaging work-up. Cystoscopic exam and urinary cytology played the most important role; however, medical history is also important for diagnosis. Hematuria is the most common symptom of bladder cancer. About 90% of bladder cancer patients present with hematuria at the time of diagnosis, which is either gross or microscopic. Gross hematuria is more strongly correlated with advanced bladder cancer. Some of the lower urinary tract symptoms, such as dysuria, frequency, and urgency, are reported in 20% of bladder cancer patients and possible indicators of carcinoma in situ (CIS).
KeywordsHematuria Gender difference Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria Lower urinary tract symptoms
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