Diagnosis and Prognostic Factors of UTUC

  • Bum Sik Tae
  • Chang Wook Jeong


Preoperative tumor staging and diagnosis are difficult with currently available imaging modalities, but clinical variables have been identified to enable risk stratification and distinguish high-risk and low-risk tumors (Baard et al., Nat Rev Urol 14:181–191, 2017). The EAU and Société International d’Urologie (SIU)–International Consultation on Urological Diseases (ICUD) recommendations for imaging in UTUC diagnosis include urography using CT (CTU) or urography using MRI (Baard et al., Nat Rev Urol 14:181–191, 2017). In the standard diagnostic work-up, urine cytology and a cystoscopy are usually recommended to rule out a concomitant bladder tumor. In addition, diagnostic ureterorenoscopy and biopsy are recommended in patients in whom the findings of these procedures could influence treatment decisions, between radical nephroureterectomy and kidney-sparing treatment.


Upper urothelial carcinoma Diagnosis Imaging Prognostic factor 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Korea University College of MedicineSeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department UrologyKorea University Ansan HospitalAnsanSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department UrologySeoul National University HospitalSeoulSouth Korea

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