Epidemiology, Etiology, and Histopathology
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Urothelial carcinoma is a cancer which originates in the urothelium, which covers the internal layer of the bladder, ureter, urethra, and renal pelvis. Prevalence of urothelial carcinoma is relatively higher in developed country. Incidence is on average three times higher in the male population; however mortality is higher in the female population. Smoking and occupational exposure to aromatic amine compounds are the most important environmental factors. Most frequently founded chromosomal abnormality is loss of chromosome 9, and FGFR, TP53, and PI3K gene mutations are important pathways in bladder cancer carcinogenesis. According to epidemiological difference between male and female population, recent genetic study focused on sex hormone receptor as prognostic factor.
KeywordsUrothelial carcinoma Epidemiology Etiology Genetic factor Environmental factor
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