Assessing Landscape Connectivity for Tigers and Prey Species: Concepts and Practice

  • Divya Vasudev
  • James D. Nichols
  • Uma Ramakrishnan
  • Krishnamurthy Ramesh
  • Srinivas Vaidyanathan
Chapter

Abstract

Tiger conservation efforts are shifting from an exclusive focus on single reserves to include large heterogeneous landscapes.

References

  1. Abrahms B, Sawyer SC, Jordan NR et al (2016) Does wildlife resource selection accurately inform corridor conservation? J Appl Ecol. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.12714
  2. Adriaensen F, Chardon JP, De Blust G et al (2003) The application of “least-cost” modelling as a functional landscape model. Landsc Urban Plan 64:233–247. doi:10.1016/S0169-2046(02)00242-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed RA, Prusty K, Jena J et al (2012) Prevailing human carnivore conflict in Kanha-Achanakmar corridor, Central India. J Zool 7:158–164. doi:10.5829/idosi.wjz.2012.7.2.6335 Google Scholar
  4. Areendran G, Raj M, Raj K (2012) Modeling impact of economic development projects on Tiger conservation landscape–a case study from Nilgiris, India. Asian J Geoinformatics 12(1)Google Scholar
  5. Arnason AN (1972) Parameter estimates from mark-recapture experiments on two populations subject to migration and death. Res Popul Ecol (Kyoto) 13:97–113. doi:10.1007/BF02521971 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bauer S, Klaassen M (2013) Mechanistic models of animal migration behaviour – their diversity, structure and use. J Anim Ecol 82:498–508. doi:10.1111/1365-2656.12054 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown JH, Kodric-Brown A (1977) Turnover rates in insular biogeography: effect of immigration on extinction. Ecology 58:445–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carroll C, Miquelle DG (2006) Spatial viability analysis of Amur tiger Panthera tigris altaica in the Russian Far East: the role of protected areas and landscape matrix in population persistence. J Appl Ecol 43:1056–1068. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01237.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chadès I, Martin TG, Nicol S et al (2011) General rules for managing and surveying networks of pests, diseases, and endangered species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:8323–8328. doi:10.1073/pnas.1016846108 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Chundawat RS, Sharma K, Gogate N et al (2016) Size matters: scale mismatch between space use patterns of tigers and protected area size in a tropical dry Forest. Biol Conserv 197:146–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clobert J, Baguette M, Benton TG et al (2012) Dispersal ecology and evolution. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coffman CJ, Nichols JD, Pollock KH (2001) Population dynamics of Microtus pennsylvanicus in corridor-linked patches. Oikos 93:3–21. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0706.2001.930101.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cushman SA, Elliot NB, Macdonald DW et al (2016) A multi-scale assessment of population connectivity in African lions (Panthera leo) in response to landscape change. Landsc Ecol 31(6):1337–1353. doi:10.1007/s10980-015-0292-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. DeAngelis DL, Gross LJ (1992) Individual-based models and approaches in ecology. Chapman and Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Doerr VAJ, Barrett T, Doerr ED (2011) Connectivity, dispersal behaviour and conservation under climate change: a response to Hodgson et al. J Appl Ecol 48:143–147. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01899.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eaton MJ, Hughes PT, Hines JE, Nichols JD (2014) Testing metapopulation concepts: effects of patch characteristics and neighborhood occupancy on the dynamics of an endangered lagomorph. Oikos 123:662–676. doi:10.1111/oik.01008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fletcher RJ, Revell A, Reichert BE et al (2013) Network modularity reveals critical scales for connectivity in ecology and evolution. Nat Commun. doi:10.1038/ncomms3572
  18. Fletcher RJ, Burrell NS, Reichert BE et al (2016) Divergent perspectives on landscape connectivity reveal consistent effects from genes to communities. Curr Landsc Ecol Rep 1:67–79. doi:10.1007/s40823-016-0009-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Frankham R (2005) Genetics and extinction. Biol Conserv 126:131–140. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.05.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goodrich JM, Kerley LL, Smirnov EN et al (2008) Survival rates and causes of mortality of Amur tigers on and near the Sikhote-Alin biosphere Zapovednik. J Zool 276:323–329. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2008.00458.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Goswami VR, Vasudev D (2017) Triage of conservation needs: the juxtaposition of conflict mitigation and connectivity considerations in heterogeneous, human-dominated landscapes. Front Ecol Evol. doi:10.3389/fevo.2016.00144
  22. Hall LA, Beissinger SR (2014) A practical toolbox for design and analysis of landscape genetics studies. Landsc Ecol 29:1487–1504. doi:10.1007/s10980-014-0082-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hanski I (1998) Metapopulation dynamics. Nature 396:41–49. doi:10.1016/0169-5347(89)90061-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hestbeck JB, Nichols JD, Malecki RA (1991) Estimates of movement and site fidelity using mark-resight data of wintering Canada geese. Ecology 72:523–533. doi:10.2307/2937193 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hostetler JA, Onorato DP, Jansen D, Oli MK (2013) A cat’s tale: the impact of genetic restoration on Florida Panther population dynamics and persistence. J Anim Ecol 82:608–620. doi:10.1111/1365-2656.12033 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Jhala YV, Qureshi Q, Gopal R (2015) The status of tigers in India 2014. National Tiger Conservation Authority, New Delhi & The Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  27. Joshi A, Vaidyanathan S, Mondol S et al (2013) Connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris) populations in the human-influenced forest mosaic of central India. PLoS One 8:e77980. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077980 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Kanagaraj R, Wiegand T, Kramer-Schadt S, Goyal SP (2013) Using individual-based movement models to assess inter-patch connectivity for large carnivores in fragmented landscapes. Biol Conserv 167:298–309. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2013.08.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Karanth KU, Nichols JD, Kumar NS et al (2004) Tigers and their prey: predicting carnivore densities from prey abundance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:4854–4858. doi:10.1073/pnas.0306210101 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Karanth KU, Nichols JD, Kumar NS, Hines JE (2006) Assessing tiger population dynamics using photographic capture – recapture sampling. Ecology 87:2925–2937CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Karanth KU, Gopalaswamy AM, Kumar NS et al (2011) Monitoring carnivore populations at the landscape scale: occupancy modelling of tigers from sign surveys. J Appl Ecol 48:1048–1056. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02002.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Keller LF, Waller DM (2002) Inbreeding effects in wild populations. Trends Ecol Evol 17:230–241. doi: 10.1016/S0169-5347(02)02489-8
  33. Kenney J, Allendorf FW, Mcdougal C, Smith JLD (2014) How much gene flow is needed to avoid inbreeding depression in wild tiger populations? Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 281:20133337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kerley LL, Goodrich JM, Miquelle DG et al (2002) Effects of roads and human disturbance on Amur tigers. Conserv Biol 16:97–108. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.2002.99290.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kramer-Schadt S, Revilla E, Wiegand T et al (2004) Fragmented landscapes, road mortality and patch connectivity: modelling influences on the dispersal of Eurasian lynx. J Appl Ecol 41:711–723. doi:10.1111/j.0021-8901.2004.00933.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lacy RC (1997) Importance of genetic variation to the viability of mammalian populations. J Mammal 78:320–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Langrock R, King R, Matthiopoulos J et al (2012) Flexible and practical modeling of animal telemetry data: hidden Markov models and extensions. Ecology 93:2336–2342. doi:10.2307/23436257 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Lebreton JD, Nichols JD, Barker RJ et al (2009) Modeling individual animal histories with multistate capture-recapture models. In: Caswell H (ed) Advances in ecological research. Academic, San Diego, pp 87–173Google Scholar
  39. Lindenmayer DB, Fischer J (2007) Tackling the habitat fragmentation panchreston. Trends Ecol Evol 22:127–132. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2006.11.006
  40. MacArthur RH, Wilson EO (1967) The theory of island biogeography. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  41. MacKenzie DI, Nichols JD, Royle JA et al (2006) Occupancy estimation and modeling: inferring patterns and dynamics of species occurrence, Amsterdam, AcademicGoogle Scholar
  42. Maehr DS, Land ED, Shindle DB et al (2002) Florida panther dispersal and conservation. Biol Conserv 106:187–197. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(01)00245-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Malviya M, Ramesh K (2015) Human-felid conflict in corridor habitat: implications for tiger and leopard conservation in Terai Arc Landscape, India. Hum Wildl Interac 9:48–57Google Scholar
  44. Manel S, Holderegger R (2013) Ten years of landscape genetics. Trends Ecol Evol 28:614–621. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2013.05.012 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Marshall TC, Spalton JA (2000) Simultaneous inbreeding and outbreeding depression in reintroduced Arabian oryx. Anim Conserv 3:241–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McCallum H, Dobson A (2002) Disease, habitat fragmentation and conservation. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 269:2041–2049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McClure ML, Hansen AJ, Inman RM (2016) Connecting models to movements: testing connectivity model predictions against empirical migration and dispersal data. Landsc Ecol. doi:10.1007/s10980-016-0347-0
  48. McRae BH, Dickson BG, Keitt TH, Shah VB (2008) Using circuit theory to model connectivity in ecology, evolution, and conservation. Ecology 89:2712–2724. doi:10.1890/07-1861.1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Minor ES, Urban DL (2007) Graph theory as a proxy for spatially explicit population models in conservation planning. Ecol Appl 17:1771–1782CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Moilanen A, Wilson KA, Possingham HP (2009) Spatial conservation prioritization: quantitative methods and computational tools. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  51. Morales JM, Haydon DT, Frair J et al (2004) Extracting more out of relocation data: building movement models as mixtures of random walks. Ecology 85:2436–2445. doi:10.1890/03-0269 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nathan R, Getz WM, Revilla E et al (2008) A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:19052–19059CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Nichols JD (2016) And the first one now will later be last: time-reversal in Cormack-Jolly-Seber models. Stat Sci 31:175–190. doi:10.1214/16-STS546 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nichols JD, Kendall WL (1995) The use of multi-state capture-recapture models to address questions in evolutionary ecology. J Appl Stat 22:835–846. doi:10.1080/02664769524658 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nichols JD, Pollock KH (1990) Estimation of recruitment from immigration versus in situ reproduction using Pollock’s robust design. Ecology 71:21–26. doi:10.2307/1940243 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nichols JD, Sauer JR, Pollock KH, Hestbeck JB (1992) Estimating transition probabilities for stage-based population projection matrices using capture-recapture data. Ecology 73:306–312. doi:10.2307/1938741 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. O’Grady JJ, Brook BW, Reed DH et al (2006) Realistic levels of inbreeding depression strongly affect extinction risk in wild populations. Biol Conserv 133:42–51. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2006.05.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Patterson T, Thomas L, Wilcox C et al (2008) State–space models of individual animal movement. Trends Ecol Evol 23:87–94. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2007.10.009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Piry S, Alapetite A, Cornuet J-M et al (2004) GENECLASS2: a software for genetic assignment and first-generation migrant detection. J Hered 95:536–539. doi:10.1093/jhered/esh074 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155:945–959PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Ralls K, Ballou JD, Templeton A (1988) Estimates of lethal equivalents and the cost of inbreeding in mammals. Conserv Biol 2:185–193. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.1988.tb00169.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ramesh K, Cushman SA, Sarkar MS et al (2016) Multi-scale prediction of landscape resistance for tiger dispersal in central India. Landsc Ecol. doi:10.1007/s10980-016-0363-0
  63. Rathore CS, Dubey Y, Shrivastava A et al (2012) Opportunities of habitat connectivity for tiger (Panthera tigris) between Kanha and Pench national parks in Madhya Pradesh, India. PLoS One. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039996
  64. Rayan DM, Linkie M (2015) Conserving tigers in Malaysia: a science-driven approach for eliciting conservation policy change. Biol Conserv 184:18–26. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2014.12.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rayfield B, Fortin MJ, Fall A (2010) The sensitivity of least-cost habitat graphs to relative cost surface values. Landsc Ecol 25:519–532. doi:10.1007/s10980-009-9436-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Reddy PA, Gour DS, Bhavanishankar M et al (2012) Genetic evidence of tiger population structure and migration within an isolated and fragmented landscape in northwest India. PLoS One 7:e29827. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029827 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Revilla E, Wiegand T (2008) Individual movement behavior, matrix heterogeneity, and the dynamics of spatially structured populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105:19120–19125. doi:10.1073/pnas.0801725105 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Riley SPD, Pollinger JP, Sauvajot RM et al (2006) A southern California freeway is a physical and social barrier to gene flow in carnivores. Mol Ecol 15:1733–1741. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.02907.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Rousset F (1999) Reproductive value vs sources and sinks. Oikos 86:591. doi:10.2307/3546664 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Runge JP, Runge MC, Nichols JD (2006) The role of local populations within a landscape context: defining and classifying sources and sinks. Am Nat 167:925–938. doi:10.1086/503531 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Sanderson WEW, Forrest J, Loucks C et al (2010) Setting priorities for tiger conservation: 2005–2015. In: Tilson R, Nyhus PJ (eds) Tigers of the world, pp 143–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sawyer SC, Epps CW, Brashares JS (2011) Placing linkages among fragmented habitats: do least-cost models reflect how animals use landscapes? J Appl Ecol 48:668–678. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.01970.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Schwarz CJ, Schweigert JF, Arnason AN (1993) Estimating migration rates using tag-recovery data. Biometrics 49:177–193. doi:10.2307/2532612 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sharma S, Dutta T, Maldonado JE et al (2013a) Forest corridors maintain historical gene flow in a tiger metapopulation in the highlands of central India. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 280:20131506. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.1506 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sharma S, Dutta T, Maldonado JE et al (2013b) Spatial genetic analysis reveals high connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris) populations in the Satpura-Maikal landscape of Central India. Ecol Evol 3:48–60. doi:10.1002/ece3.432 CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Skvarla JL, Nichols JD, Hines JE, Waser PM (2004) Modeling interpopulation dispersal by banner-tailed kangaroo rats. Ecology 85:2737–2746. doi:10.1890/03-0599 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Slatkin M (1987) Gene flow and the geographic structure of natural populations. Science 236:787–792. doi:10.1126/science.3576198 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Smith JLD (1993) The role of dispersal in structuring the Chitwan tiger population. Behaviour 124:165–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Smith JLD, Mcdougal C (1991) The contribution of variance in lifetime reproduction to effective population size in tigers. Conserv Biol 5:484–490. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.1991.tb00355.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Taylor PD, Fahrig L, Henein K, Merriam G (1993) Connectivity is a vital element of landscape structure. Oikos 68:571–573. doi:10.2307/3544927 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Traill LW, Bradshaw CJA, Brook BW (2007) Minimum viable population size: a meta-analysis of 30 years of published estimates. Biol Conserv 139:159–166. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2007.06.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Treves A, Karanth KU (2003) Human-carnivore conflict and perspectives on carnivore management worldwide. Conserv Biol 17:1491–1499. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2003.00059.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Turner MG, Gardner RH (2001) Landscape ecology in theory and practice. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  84. Vasudev D, Fletcher RJ (2015) Incorporating movement behavior into conservation prioritization in fragmented landscapes: an example of western hoolock gibbons in Garo Hills, India. Biol Conserv 181:124–132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2014.11.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Vasudev D, Fletcher RJ, Goswami VR, Krishnadas M (2015) From dispersal constraints to landscape connectivity: lessons from species distribution modeling. Ecography 38:967–978. doi:10.1111/ecog.01306 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Walston J, Robinson JG, Bennett EL et al (2010) Bringing the tiger back from the brink-the six percent solution. PLoS Biol 8:6–9. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000485 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wang J (2004) Application of the one-migrant-per-generation rule to conservation and management. Conserv Biol 18:332–343. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00440.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wikramanayake ED, Dinerstein E, Robinson JG et al (1998) An ecology-based method for defining priorities for large mammal conservation: the tiger as case study. Conserv Biol 12:865–878. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1998.96428.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Williams BK, Nichols JD (1984) Optimal timing in biological processes. Am Nat 123:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Worboys GL, Francis WL, Lockwood M (2010) Connectivity conservation management: a global guide. Earthscan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  91. Williams BK, Nichols JD, Conroy MJ (2002) Analysis and management of animal populations. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  92. Xu YC, Fang SG, Li ZK (2007) Sustainability of the South China tiger: implications of inbreeding depression and introgression. Conserv Genet 8:1199–1207. doi:10.1007/s10592-006-9276-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Yackulic CB, Reid J, Davis R et al (2012) Neighborhood and habitat effects on vital rates: expansion of the barred owl in the Oregon Coast Ranges. Ecology 93:1953–1966. doi:10.1890/11-1709.1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Yackulic CB, Reid J, Nichols JD et al (2014) The roles of competition and habitat in the dynamics of populations and species distributions. Ecology 95:265–279. doi:10.1890/13-0012.1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Zeller KA, McGarigal K, Whiteley AR (2012) Estimating landscape resistance to movement: a review. Landsc Ecol 27:777–797. doi:10.1007/s10980-012-9737-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Divya Vasudev
    • 1
    • 2
  • James D. Nichols
    • 3
  • Uma Ramakrishnan
    • 4
  • Krishnamurthy Ramesh
    • 5
    • 6
  • Srinivas Vaidyanathan
    • 7
  1. 1.Wildlife Conservation Society, India ProgramBengaluruIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Wildlife StudiesBengaluruIndia
  3. 3.CroftonUSA
  4. 4.National Centre for Biological Sciences, TIFRBengaluruIndia
  5. 5.Wildlife Institute of IndiaDehradunIndia
  6. 6.Department of Forest and Conservation SciencesUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  7. 7.Foundation for Ecological Research, Advocacy and Learning (FERAL)AurovilleIndia

Personalised recommendations