Cosmopolitanism, Spirituality and Social Action: Mahatma Gandhi and Rudolf Steiner

  • Ulrich Rösch


Mahatma Gandhi and Rudolf Steiner are doubtless two of the most important individuals in the twentieth century. One originated from India—although situated in the west of Asia, you might call it the heart of Asia—the other one from the German-speaking Europe, or we may say: from the heart of Europe. Both joined their spiritual striving with social research and social action and can be called shining examples for future humanity. Are they not both forerunners for modern cosmopolitanism? The chapter discusses their discourses and practices of spirituality and social action and their significance for rethinking cosmopolitanism.

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© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ulrich Rösch
    • 1
  1. 1.Worked with GoetheannumDronarchSwitzerland

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