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Biosurfactant-Aided Bioprocessing: Industrial Applications and Environmental Impact

  • Reetika Sharma
  • Harinder Singh Oberoi
Chapter

Abstract

Surfactants are classified as ionic, nonionic, and zwitterionic surfactants based on the ionic properties of the polar head group. Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds produced by microbes, possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. In biosurfactants, the lipophilic moiety is generally a protein or peptide with a high fraction of hydrophobic side chains or a hydrocarbon chain of a fatty acid with 10 to 18 carbon atoms, whereas the hydrophilic moiety is an ester; hydroxyl, phosphate, and carboxylate group; or sugar. Biosurfactants have specific advantages over chemical surfactants, such as biodegradable and environmental-friendly nature, production at lower temperatures, effectiveness at low concentrations, low toxicity, high selectivity because of the presence of specific functional groups, and efficiency to work at extreme environmental conditions of temperatures, pH, and salinity, rendering them suitable for different industrial applications. However, large-scale commercial application of biosurfactants is impeded because of their high production costs, ineffective bioprocessing methods, less efficient microbial strains, and the exorbitant downstream processing costs. Biosurfactants find potential industrial application in areas, such as disruption of cell biomass, hydrocarbon bioremediation, and heavy metal bioremediation. Different groups of microbes, such as bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and actinomycetes are capable of producing biosurfactants. Some of the extensively studied biosurfactant producing microbial genera include Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Candida and Torulopsis. Development of improved and cost-efficient application technologies coupled with genetic engineering and strain improvement techniques and improved production processes will help in large-scale application of biosurfactants in the near future.

Keywords

Biosurfactants Bioprocessing Bioremediation Lignocellulosic biomass Production cost Rhamnolipids Sophorolipids 

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental ScienceDr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and ForestrySolanIndia
  2. 2.Division of Post Harvest Technology and Agricultural EngineeringICAR- Indian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBengaluruIndia

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