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Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Detoxification During Leaf Senescence

  • Alice Trivellini
  • Giacomo Cocetta
  • Alessandra Francini
  • Antonio FerranteEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The natural leaf senescence is the last stage of leaf development and is a highly genetically regulated process. Induced leaf senescence, instead, usually occurs in detached leaves or in plants placed in dark conditions under postharvest storage. In both cases, an oxidative burst is a typical feature of this phenomenon and includes a significant increment in reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and singlet oxygen. Thus, ROS play a key role in leaf senescence process. Under normal (i.e., non-stressed) conditions, the levels of ROS are controlled and balanced by the antioxidant systems present in leaves. The leaf cells act in the defense response against the accumulation of ROS by enhancing the activity of some key enzymes such as catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, the ascorbate–glutathione cycle, also known as Asada–Halliwell cycle, is the most important enzymatic antioxidant system acting in the leaf cells during senescence. The leaves are considered the main target of ROS production, and in particular, the photosynthetic apparatus and the related molecules act to support the light perception and photosynthesis activity (chlorophylls and carotenoids).

Keywords

Ascorbate Ethylene Fruit Oxidative stress Postharvest Vegetables 

Abbreviations

1O2

Singlet oxygen

AAO

Aldehyde oxygenase

ABA

Abscisic acid

ACO

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase

AOI

IAA oxidase

APX

Ascorbate peroxidase

AsA

Ascorbate

ATG

Affecting autophagy

CAT

Catalase

DHA

Dehydroascorbate

DHAR

Dehydroascorbate reductase

GR

Glutathione reductase

GSH

Glutathione

GSH

Reduced glutathione

GSSG

Oxidized form of glutathione

H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide

IAA

Indole acetic acid

JA

Jasmonic acid

MDHA

Monodehydroascorbate reductase

MeJA

Methyl jasmonate

NahG

Naphthalene oxygenase

NCED

9-cis-Epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase

NIT1-3

Nitrilases

O2ˉ

Superoxide anion

OH˙

Hydroxyl radical

PAO

Pheophorbide a oxygenase

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SA

Salicylic acid

SAGs

Senescence-associated genes

SARK

Senescence-associated receptor-like kinase

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TSA1

Tryptophan synthase

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alice Trivellini
    • 1
  • Giacomo Cocetta
    • 2
  • Alessandra Francini
    • 1
  • Antonio Ferrante
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Life SciencesScuola Superiore Sant’AnnaPisaItaly
  2. 2.Department Agricultural and Environmental Science – Production, Landscape, AgroenergyUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanoItaly

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