Neoadjuvant Therapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer



Worldwide, colorectal cancer is the third most commonly occurring cancer. Local recurrence and distance metastasis, especially in patients with low rectal cancers, present the main problems for surgeons. Even after undergoing total mesorectal excision (TME), the local recurrence rate for stage III patients is 20–30%. The available treatments of rectal cancers are far from satisfactory; the 5- and 10-year surgical rates are 35% and 22%, respectively. To improve the local control and long-term survival rates, it is necessary for patients with resectable stage II–III cancers to receive neoadjuvant therapy before undergoing surgery. Per the evidence, preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) can significantly reduce the local recurrence of locally advanced rectal cancers and increase the rates of anus preservation. Hence, most guidelines, such as those of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), and the American Cancer Society (ACS), have strongly recommended the implementation of presurgery CRT as standard neoadjuvant therapy for locally advanced rectal cancers.


Neoadjuvant therapy Rectal cancer Locally advanced Surgery Chemoradiotherapy 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Colorectal SurgeryPeking University Cancer HospitalBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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