Reflux Esophagitis and Barrett’s Esophagusb
Reflux esophagitis can be diagnosed by endoscopic examination, when erosions or ulcerations are found between the distal esophagus and the Z line. Endoscopic evaluation is especially important in assessing the severity of the diseases and the presence of associated complications. Endoscopy can also differentiate other diagnoses, such as viral or eosinophilic esophagitis. Endoscopic evaluation should especially be performed in patients with weight loss, dysphagia, or vomiting. Barrett’s esophagus is the replacement of squamous epithelium with columnar mucosa by chronic exposure of acid. Endoscopic evaluation is essential for the diagnosis of Barrett’s esophagus, because this can be confirmed by tissue pathology of intestinal metaplasia.