Image magnification endoscopy is defined by the capacity to perform optical zoom by adjusting the position of the movable lens at the tip of the endoscope. Optical zoom endoscopes can magnify images up to 150 times. Image magnification endoscopy can provide detailed surface structure and vascular observation of gastrointestinal lesions. The evaluations via image magnification endoscopy usually are performed in combination with dye-based or mucosal enhancement techniques. Image magnification endoscopy has been reported to be helpful in evaluation and analysis of Barrett’s esophagus, squamous cell neoplasms of esophagus, gastric neoplasms, Helicobacter pylori gastritis, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, colorectal neoplasms, and inflammatory bowel disease. Image magnification endoscopy is helpful for improvement in detection and classification of gastrointestinal mucosal lesions and minimizing tissue biopsies via better targeting. Further refinement of current endoscopic classifications for abnormality of gastrointestinal mucosal lesion and studies about high-magnification endoscopy compared with tissue biopsy will be used for delicate diagnosis and therapeutic decision making for gastrointestinal disease.
Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is a newly developed technique that allows real-time in vivo imaging of gastrointestinal mucosal layer. CLE can obtain greatly high magnification, enabling ×1000 magnification for real-time in vivo histological assessment by “confocal” method. CLE allows gastrointestinal endoscopists to notice changes in vessels, connective tissue, and cellular or subcellular structures, which were previously done through histological biopsy. Even though there are some limitations which make it difficult to expand its clinical use, such as extremely narrow field of view and high cost, there are many advantages of CLE applied in diverse spectrum of gastrointestinal diseases.
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