Advertisement

Advanced Gastric Cancers

  • Gwang Ha Kim
Chapter

Abstract

Gastric cancer is one of the world’s leading causes of morbidity and mortality from malignant disease. Although gastric cancer-related mortality has declined dramatically since the 1930s, gastric cancer remains a lethal disease, especially when it is diagnosed at an advanced stage. In advanced gastric cancer, the lesion extends beyond the proper muscle layer. Advanced gastric cancers are usually classified into four types (types 1–4) by their gross appearance. If an ulcerative mass (types 2 and 3) is found, at least six to eight biopsy specimens from all quadrants of the ulcer margin and ulcer base are necessary to detect the carcinoma. The diffuse infiltrative form (type 4) is easily missed on endoscopic examination, and in many cases, results of histological examination may be negative, even on repetitive biopsy. Therefore, it is important to retrieve specimens from any abnormal mucosal areas such as redness, erosion, or tiny ulcer.

Keywords

Advanced gastric cancer Borrmann’s classification Early gastric cancer Scirrhous gastric cancer Squamous cell carcinoma 

References

  1. 1.
    Japanese Gastric Cancer Association. Japanese classification of gastric carcinoma–2nd English edition. Gastric Cancer. 1998;1:10–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Umehara Y, Kimura T, Okubo T, et al. Gastric carcinoma resembling submucosal tumor. Gastric Cancer. 1999;2:191–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Murphy G, Pfeiffer R, Camargo MC, et al. Meta-analysis shows that prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus-positive gastric cancer differs based on sex and anatomic location. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:824–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yan C, Zhu ZG, Yan M, et al. Clinicopathological characteristics and computed tomography features of mucinous gastric carcinoma. J Int Med Res. 2011;39:291–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Amuluru K, Gupta H. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach: a case report. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2010;41:24–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicinePusan National University School of MedicineBusanSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations