Chitosan Nanoparticles as Carrier for Anticancer Drugs: An Overview

  • Raj Kumar Salar
  • Naresh Kumar


Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been used to treat cancer; however, these methods have serious side effects. Nanomedicine has emerged as a hope for cancer patients in the recent past. Various nanomedical carriers such as liposomal nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, etc. have been developed to carry anticancer drugs to target site. Among these, polymeric nanoparticles have been used extensively due to their unique properties. Of various natural and synthetic polymers, chitosan is most suitable as a carrier of anticancer drugs. It is a natural polymer obtained from deacetylation of chitin. Researchers have worked on the anticancer drug encapsulation in chitosan nanoparticles and its targeted drug delivery. Chitosan nanoparticles are safe and biodegradable and can release drugs at controlled rates to the target site. Chitosan nanoparticles can be synthesized by various methods such as ionic gelation method, emulsion polymerization method, etc. Although research is going on worldwide, more research is needed in the area of anticancer drug encapsulation in chitosan nanoparticles and its delivery to target sites.


  1. Alexis F, Pridgen EM, Langer R, Farokhzad OC (2010) Nanoparticle technologies for cancer therapy. In: Schäfer-Korting M (ed) Drug delivery. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 55–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amidi M, Mastrobattista E, Jiskoot W, Hennink WE (2010) Chitosan-based delivery systems for protein therapeutics and antigens. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 62:59–82CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anitha A, Deepagan VG, Divya Rani VV, Menon D, Nair SV, Jayakumar R (2011) Preparation, characterization, in vitro drug release and biological studies of curcumin loaded dextran sulphate–chitosan nanoparticles. Carbohydr Polym 84:1158–1164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anitha A, Chennazhi KP, Nair SV, Jayakumar R (2012) 5-Flourouracil loaded N,O –carboxymethyl CSNPs as an anticancer nanomedicine for breast cancer. J Biomed Nanotechnol 8:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anitha A, Uthaman S, Nair SV, Jayakumar R, Lakshmanan VK (2013) Enhanced delivery system of flutamide loaded chitosan-dextran sulphate nanoparticles for prostate cancer. J Biomed Nanotechnol 9:335–340CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baraton MI, Chen X, Gonsalves KE (1996) Application of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to nanostructured materials surface characterization. ACS Symp Ser 622:312–333Google Scholar
  7. Berthold A, Cremer K, Kreuter J (1996) Preparation and characterization of chitosan microspheres as drug carrier for prednisolone sodium phosphate as model for anti-inflammatory drugs. J Control Release 39:17–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhui DK, Bar H, Sarkar P, Sahoo GP et al (2009) Synthesis and UV-vis spectroscopic study of silver nanoparticles in aqueous SDS solution. J Mol Liq 145:33–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bodnar M, Hartmann J, Borbely J (2005) Preparation and characterization of chitosan-based nanoparticles. Biomacromolecules 6:2521–2527CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Calvo P, Remunan-Lopez C, Vila-Jato JL, Alonso MJ (1997) Novel hydrophilic chitosan-polyethylene oxide nanoparticles as protein carriers. J Appl Polym Sci 63:125–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chaudhury A, Das S (2011) Recent advancement of chitosan-based nanoparticles for oral controlled delivery of insulin and other therapeutic agents. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech 12:10–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cheng M, Han J, Li Q, He B, Zha B et al (2012) Synthesis of galactosylated chitosan/5-fluorouracil nanoparticles and its characteristics, in vitro and in vivo release studies. J Biomed Mater Res Part B Appl Biomater 100:2035–2043CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Creighton JA, Eadon DG (1991) Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra of the colloidal metallic elements. J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 87:3881–3891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. De Rosa G, Caraglia M, Salmaso S, Elbayoumi T (2013) Nanotechnologies in Cancer. J Drug Deliv.
  15. Debnath S, Datta D, Babu MN et al (2010) Studies on the preparation and evaluation of chitosan nanoparticles containing cytarabine. Int J Pharm Sci Nanotechnol 3:957–964Google Scholar
  16. Derakhshandeh K, Fathi S (2012) Role of chitosan nanoparticles in the oral absorption of Gemcitabine. Int J Pharm 437:172–177CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Duan J, Zhang Y, Han S, Chen Y, Li B et al (2010) Synthesis and in vitro/in vivo anti-cancer evaluation of curcumin-loaded chitosan/poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles. Int J Pharm 400:211–220CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Duan J, Liu M, Zhang Y, Zhao J, Pan Y, Yang X (2012) Folate-decorated chitosan/doxorubicin poly(butyl)cyanoacrylate nanoparticles for tumor-targeted drug delivery. J Nanopart Res 14:761. Scholar
  19. El-Shabouri M (2002) Positively charged nanoparticles for improving the oral bioavailability of cyclosporin-A. Int J Pharm 249:101–108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Eppler AS, Rupprechter G, Anderson EA, Somorjai GA (2000) Thermal and chemical stability and adhesion strength of Pt nanoparticle arrays supported on silica studied by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. J Phys Chem B 104:7286–7292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Feng C, Wang Z, Jiang C, Kong M, Zhou X et al (2013) Chitosan/o-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles for efficient and safe oral anticancer drug delivery: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Int J Pharm 457:158–167CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Fröhlich E (2012) The role of surface charge in cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of medical nanoparticles. Int J Nanomedicine 7:5577–5591CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Goldberg M, Langer R, Jia X (2007) Nanostructured materials for applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 18:241–268CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Guo Y, Chu M, Tan S, Zhao S, Liu H et al (2014) Chitosan-g-TPGS nanoparticles for anticancer drug delivery and overcoming multidrug resistance. Mol Pharm 11:59–70CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Hao E, Schatz GC, Hupp JT (2004) Synthesis and optical properties of anisotropic metal nanoparticles. J Fluoresc 14:331–341CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Hosseinzadeh H, Atyabi F, Dinarvand R, Ostad SN (2012) Chitosan–Pluronic nanoparticles as oral delivery of anticancer gemcitabine: preparation and in vitro study. Int J Nanomedicine 7:1851–1863CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Huang P, Yang C, Liu J, Wang W, Guo S et al (2014) Improving the oral delivery efficiency of anticancer drugs by chitosan coated polycaprolactone grafted hyaluronic acid nanoparticles. J Mater Chem 2:4021–4033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hwang HY, Kimb IS, Kwon IC, Kim YH (2008) Tumor targetability and antitumor effect of docetaxel-loaded hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan nanoparticles. J Control Release 128:23–31CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Jain A, Jain SK, Ganesh N, Barve J, Beg AM (2010) Design and development of ligand-appended polysaccharidic nanoparticles for the delivery of oxaliplatin in colorectal cancer. J Nanotechonol 6:179–190Google Scholar
  30. Jari V, Rose M, Heikki K, Marjaana R, Eija S, Raija A (2004) Chitosan-coated paper: Effects of nisin and different acids on the antimicrobial activity. J Appl Polym Sci 94:986–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jeong YI, Jin SG, Kim IY, Pei J, Wen M et al (2010) Doxorubicin-incorporated nanoparticles composed of poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted carboxymethyl chitosan and antitumor activity against glioma cells in vitro. Colloids Surf B 79:149–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ji J, Wu D, Liu L, Chen J, Xu Y (2012a) Preparation, evaluation, and in vitro release of folic acid conjugated O-Carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles loaded with methotrexate. J Appl Polym Sci 125:E208–E215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ji J, Wu D, Liu L, Chen J, Xu Y (2012b) Preparation, characterization, and in vitro release of folic acid-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles loaded with methotrexate for targeted delivery. Polym Bull 68:1707–1720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jiang J, Oberdörster G, Biswas P (2009) Characterization of size, surface charge, and agglomeration state of nanoparticle dispersions for toxicological studies. J Nanopart Res 11:77–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jiang L, Li X, Liu L, Zhang Q (2013) Thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles for oral chemotherapy of lung cancer. Nanoscale Res Lett 8:66. Scholar
  36. Jin MX, Hu QH (2008) Characterization and application in bioadhesive drug delivery system of chitosan. Centr South Pharm 6:324–327Google Scholar
  37. Kas HS (1997) Chitosan: properties, preparations and application to microparticulate systems. J Microencapsul 14:689–711CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Kean T, Thanou M (2010) Biodegradation, biodistribution and toxicity of chitosan. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 62:3–11CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kim JH, Kim YS, Park K, Lee S et al (2008) Antitumor efficacy of cisplatin-loaded glycol chitosan nanoparticles in tumor-bearing mice. J Control Release 127:41–49CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Koo H, Min KH, Lee SC, Park JH, Park K et al (2013) Enhanced drug-loading and therapeutic efficacy of hydrotropic oligomer-conjugated glycol chitosan nanoparticles for tumor-targeted paclitaxel delivery. J Control Release 172:823–831CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kumari SDC, Tharani CB, Narayanan N, Kumar SC (2013) Formulation and characterization of methotrexate loaded sodium alginate chitosan nanoparticles. Ind J Res Pharm Biotechnol 1:915–921Google Scholar
  42. Kuppens IE, Bosch TM, van Maanen MJ et al (2005) Oral bioavailability of docetaxel in combination with OC144-093 (ONT-093). Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 55:72–78CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Le TMP, Pham VP, Dang TML, La TH et al (2013) Preparation of curcumin-loaded pluronic F127/chitosan nanoparticles for cancer therapy. Adv Nat Sci Nanosci Nanotechnol 4:025001–025004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lee SP, Tscharnuter W, Chu B (1972) Calibration of an optical self-beating spectrometer by polystyrene latex spheres, and confirmation of the Stokes-Einstein formula. J Polym Sci 10:2453–2459Google Scholar
  45. Li F, Li J, Wen X, Zhoub S, Tong X et al (2009) Anti-tumor activity of paclitaxel-loaded chitosan nanoparticles: an in vitro study. Mater Sci Eng C 29:2392–2397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Li J, Ma FK, Dang QF, Liang XG, Chen XG (2014) Glucose-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery and their specific interaction with tumor cells. Front Mater Sci 8:363–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Luque-Alcaraz AG, Lizardi J, Goycoolea FM, Valdez MA et al (2012) Characterization and antiproliferative activity of nobiletin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles. J Nanomater.
  48. Mahapatro A, Singh DK (2011) Biodegradable nanoparticles are excellent vehicle for site directed in vivo delivery of drugs and vaccines. J Nanobiotechnol 9:55. Scholar
  49. Manikkam R, Pitchai D (2014) Catechin loaded chitosan nanoparticles as a novel drug delivery system for cancer – synthesis and in vitro and in vivo characterization. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 3:1553–1577Google Scholar
  50. Mao HQ, Roy K, Troung-Le VL, Janes KA, Lin KY et al (2001) Chitosan-DNA nanoparticles as gene carriers: synthesis, characterization and transfection efficiency. J Control Release 70:399–421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Mazzarino L, Travelet C, Murillo SO et al (2012) Elaboration of chitosan-coated nanoparticles loaded with curcumin for mucoadhesive applications. J Colloid Interface 370:58–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mehrotra A, Nagarwal RC, Kumar J (2011) Lomustine loaded chitosan nanoparticles: characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity on human lung cancer cell line L132. Chem Pharm Bull 59:315–320CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Min KH, Park K, Kim YS, Bae SM, Lee S et al (2008) Hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan nanoparticles-encapsulated camptothecin enhance the drug stability and tumor targeting in cancer therapy. J Control Release 127:208–218CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Mitra S, Gaur U, Ghosh PC, Maitra AN (2001) Tumour targeted delivery of encapsulated dextran–doxorubicin conjugate using chitosan nanoparticles as carrier. J Control Release 74:317–323CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Nogueira DR, Tavano L, Mitjans M, Perez L et al (2013) In vitro antitumor activity of methotrexate via pH-sensitive chitosan nanoparticles. Biomaterials 4:2758–2772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ohya Y, Shiratani M, Kobayashi H, Ouchi T (1994) Release behavior of 5-fluorouracil from chitosan-gel nanospheres immobilizing 5-fluorouracil coated with polysaccharides and their cell specific cytotoxicity. J Macromol Sci Part A 31:629–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Othayoth R, Santhosh Kumar K, Karthik V (2013) Development and characterization of chitosan-pluronic polymeric nanoparticles for the breast cancer treatment. Int J Mech Eng Robotics 1:71–79Google Scholar
  58. Ozbas-Turan S, Aral C, Kabasakal L et al (2003) Co-encapsulation of two plasmids in chitosan microspheres as a non-viral gene delivery vehicle. J Pharm Pharm Sci 6:27–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Pan Y, Li YJ, Zhao HY, Zheng JM, Xu H et al (2002) Bioadhesive polysaccharide in protein delivery system: chitosan nanoparticles improve the intestinal absorption of insulin in vivo. Int J Pharm 249:139–147CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Park K, Kim JH, Nam YS, Lee S et al (2007) Effect of polymer molecular weight on the tumor targeting characteristics of self-assembled glycol chitosan nanoparticles. J Control Release 122:305–314CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Patel MP, Patel RR, Patel JK (2008) New drug delivery systems based on chitosan. Curr Drug Discovery Technol 5:333–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Patel PN, Patel LJ, Patel JK (2011) Development and testing of novel temoxifen citrate loaded chitosan nanoparticles using ionic gelation method. Der Pharmacia Sinica 2:17–25Google Scholar
  63. Prabaharan M, Mano J (2004) Chitosan based particles as controlled drug delivery systems. Drug Deliv 12:41–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Prameela Rani A, Sivannarayana P, Abbulu K, Saikishore V (2014) Design and characterisation of Anastrazole loaded chitosan nanoparticles by ionotropic gelation method. Res J Pharm, Biol Chem Sci 5:2069–2078Google Scholar
  65. Qi J, Yao P, He F, Yu C, Huang C (2010) Nanoparticles with dextran/chitosan shell and BSA/chitosan core-Doxorubicin loading and delivery. Int J Pharm 393:176–184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Qiu Y, Zhu J, Wang J, Gong R et al (2013) Self-assembled phytosterol-fructose-chitosan nanoparticles as a carrier of anticancer drug. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 13:5935–5941CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Rebucci M, Michiels C (2013) Molecular aspects of cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy. Biochem Pharmacol 85:1219–1226CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Reis CP, Neufeld RJ, Ribeiro AJ, Veiga F (2006) Nanoencapsulation I. Methods for preparation of drug-loaded polymeric nanoparticles. Nanomedicine 2:8–21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Sahoo D, Parida UK, Rout N, Bindhani BK (2012) Preparation and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles for the controlled release of anticancer drug paclitaxel. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 11:1687–1698Google Scholar
  70. Sakuma S, Hayashi M, Akashi M (2001) Design of nanoparticles composed of graft copolymers for oral peptide delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 47:21–37CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Salar RK, Kumar N (2016) Synthesis and characterization of vincristine loaded folic acid–chitosan conjugated nanoparticles. Resour-Efficient Technol 2(4):199–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Salar RK, Sharma P, Kumar N (2015) Enhanced antibacterial activity of streptomycin against some human pathogens using green synthesized silver nanoparticles. Resour-Efficient Technol 1:106–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sangeetha S, Harish G, Samanta MK (2010) Chitosan-based nanospheres as drug delivery system for cytarabine. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 1:1–8Google Scholar
  74. Saravanabhavan SS, Bose R, Skylab S, Dharmalingam S (2013) Fabrication of chitosan/TPP nanoparticles as a carrier towards the treatment of cancer. Int J Drug Deliv 5:35–42Google Scholar
  75. Saremi S, Atyabi F, Akhlaghi SP et al (2011) Thiolated chitosan nanoparticles for enhancing oral absorption of docetaxel: preparation, in vitro and ex vivo evaluation. Int J Nanomedicine 12:119–128Google Scholar
  76. Saremi S, Dinarvand R, Kebriaeezadeh A et al (2013) Enhanced oral delivery of docetaxel using thiolated chitosan nanoparticles: preparation, in vitro and in vivo studies. Bio Med Res Int.
  77. Sevda S, McClureb SJ (2004) Potential applications of chitosan in veterinary medicine. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 56:1467–1480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Shakeri-Zadeh A, Khoei S, Khoee S, Sharifi AM, Shiran MB (2013) Targeted, monitored and controlled chemotherapy: a multimodal nanotechnology-based approach against cancer. ISRN Nanotech.
  79. Shi XW, Du YM, Yang JH (2005) Effect of degree of substitution and molecular weight of carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles on doxorubicin delivery. J Appl Polym Sci 100:4689–4696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Shi L, Tang C, Yin C (2012) Glycyrrhizin-modified O-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles as drug vehicles targeting hepatocellular carcinoma. Biomaterials 33:7594–7604CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Shi Z, Guo R, Li W, Zhang Y, Xue W et al (2014) Nanoparticles of deoxycholic acid, polyethylene glycol and folic acid-modified chitosan for targeted delivery of doxorubicin. J Mater Sci Mater Med 25:723–731CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A (2013) Cancer statistics. CA-Cancer J Clin 63:11–30CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Snima KS, Jayakumar R, Unnikrishnan AG, Nair SV, Lakshmanan VK (2012) O-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles for metformin delivery to pancreatic cancer cells. Carbohydr Polym 89:1003–1007CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Song H, Su C, Cui W, Zhu B et al (2013) Folic acid-chitosan conjugated nanoparticles for improving tumor-targeted drug delivery. Biomed Res Int.
  85. Sun S, Murray C, Weller D, Folks L, Moser A (2000) Monodisperse FePt nanoparticles and ferromagnetic FePt nanocrystal superlattices. Science 287:1989–1992CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Sunil AA, Nadagouda NM, Tejraj M (2004) Recent advances on chitosan-based micro- and nanoparticles in drug delivery. J Control Release 100:5–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Talaei F, Azizi E, Dinarvand R, Atyabi F (2011) Thiolated chitosan nanoparticles as a delivery system for antisense therapy: evaluation against EGFR in T47D breast cancer cells. Int J Nanomed 6:1963–1975Google Scholar
  88. Termsarasab U, Cho HJ, Kim DH, Chong S et al (2013) Chitosan oligosaccharide-arachidic acid-based nanoparticles for anti-cancer drug delivery. Int J Pharm 441:373–380CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Trapani A, Denora N, Iacobellis G, Sitterberg J et al (2011) Methotrexate-loaded chitosan- and glycol chitosan-based nanoparticles: A promising strategy for the administration of the anticancer drug to brain tumors. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech 12:1302–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Trickler WJ, Nagvekar AA, Dash AK (2008) A novel nanoparticle formulation for sustained paclitaxel delivery. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech 9:486–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tsai HY, Chiu CC, Lin PC et al (2011) Antitumor efficacy of doxorubicin released from crosslinked nanoparticulate chondroitin sulfate/chitosan polyelectrolyte complexes. Macromol Biosci 11:680–688CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Wang YS, Jiang Q, Li RS, Liu LL, Zhang QQ et al (2008) Self-assembled nanoparticles of cholesterol-modified O-carboxymethyl chitosan as a novel carrier for paclitaxel. Nanotechnology 19:145101. Scholar
  93. Wang JJ, Zeng ZW, Xiao RZ, Xie T et al (2011) Recent advances of chitosan nanoparticles as drug carriers. Int J Nanomedicine 6:765–774PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Wang W, Tong CY, Liu XY, Li T et al (2015) Preparation and functional characterization of tumor-targeted folic acid-chitosan conjugated nanoparticles loaded with mitoxantrone. J Cent South Univ 22:3311–3317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Xu XY, Zhou JP, Li L et al (2008) Preparation of doxorubicin-loaded chitosan polymeric micelle and study on its tissue biodistribution in mice. Acta Pharm Sin 43:743–748Google Scholar
  96. Xu Y, Wang L, Li YK, Wang CQ (2014) Oxidation and pH responsive nanoparticles based on ferrocene-modified chitosan oligosaccharide for 5-fluorouracil delivery. Carbohydr Polym 114:27–35CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Yang SJ, Lin CF, Kuo ML, Tan CT (2013) Photodynamic detection of oral cancers with high-performance chitosan-based nanoparticles. Biomacromolecules 14:3183–3191CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Zimbone M, Calcagno L, Messina G, Baeri P, Compagnini G (2011) Dynamic light scattering and UV-vis spectroscopy of gold nanoparticles solution. Mater Lett 65:2906–2909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Zu Y, Zhao Q, Zhao X, Zu S, Meng L (2011) Process optimization for the preparation of oligomycin-loaded folate-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles as a tumor-targeted drug delivery system using a two-level factorial design method. Int J Nanomedicine 6:3429–3441CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raj Kumar Salar
    • 1
  • Naresh Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyChaudhary Devi Lal UniversitySirsaIndia

Personalised recommendations