Treatment Resistance in Bipolar Disorders

  • Marsal Sanches
  • João Quevedo
  • Jair C. Soares


Bipolar disorder (BD) is among the most prevalent and incapacitating severe mental illnesses. Although the rates of resistance to treatment among bipolar patients are not known, literature findings suggest that partial or no response to conventional agents seems to be extremely common. The present chapter addresses the different issues involved in the phenomena of treatment resistance among bipolar patients. It begins with a discussion of the challenges surrounding the concept of resistant BD, followed by some discussion regarding the possible pathophysiological factors involved in the development of resistance. Next, possible therapeutic interventions aiming at the management of treatment-resistant patients are addressed, including the potential role of novel pharmacological agents, neurostimulation, and psychosocial interventions.


Bipolar disorder Refractoriness Resistance Bipolar depression Mania Pharmacology Treatment 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marsal Sanches
    • 1
    • 2
  • João Quevedo
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Jair C. Soares
    • 1
  1. 1.Center of Excellence on Mood Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, McGovern Medical SchoolThe University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth)HoustonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesUniversity of North Dakota School of MedicineGrand ForksUSA
  3. 3.Translational Psychiatry Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, McGovern Medical SchoolThe University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth)HoustonUSA
  4. 4.Neuroscience Graduate ProgramThe University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical SciencesHoustonUSA
  5. 5.Laboratory of Neurosciences, Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences UnitUniversity of Southern Santa Catarina (UNESC)CriciúmaBrazil

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