Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in the Treatment-Resistant Psychiatric Disorders

  • Alper Evrensel
  • Mehmet Emin Ceylan


A large number of evidence have been obtained regarding the relationship between gut microbiota and the brain during the last decade. Absence of gut microbiota or changes in the bacterial composition can cause significant results in body and brain functions. Aging, stress, nutrition, and medications like antibiotics may change the intestinal microbiota bacterial composition. This condition, called dysbiosis, can be repaired through probiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). According to the historical records, FMT was first applied in the fourth century. Having been forgotten for centuries, this treatment method has been again put into practice in the twentieth century. It is effective in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis). We have limited information regarding its application in psychiatric disorders. However, clinical and preclinical studies carried out on the gut-brain connection are promising.


Fecal microbiota transplantation Microbiome Psychiatry Immune system Gut-brain axis Treatment resistance 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alper Evrensel
    • 1
  • Mehmet Emin Ceylan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUskudar UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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