Prototype Kinesthetic Illusory Device Using Combination of Active and Passive Motion

  • Hirokazu Minowa
  • Kentaro Baba
  • Masamichi Sakaguchi
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 432)


This study investigated a prototype device for inducing kinesthetic illusion. The device is able to convert a low-level movement, for example grasping, into a high level movement in which each finger is experienced as being separately controlled. The key point of the design was to allow a simple action to be experienced as a complex action. The device provides a simple method for inducing kinesthetic illusion.


Kinesthetic illusion Sense of agency Rehabilitation Finger 

1 Introduction

Stroke is a major cause of motor impairment. The number of stroke survivors is increasing as society ages, making the development of efficient motor rehabilitation more urgent. Recent research has focused on the application of kinesthetic illusion [1, 2, 3], which has been shown to play an effective role in motor rehabilitation. Our research team has developed a novel kinesthetic illusory rehabilitation system [4], based on the use of synchronized visual and haptic stimuli to induce kinesthetic illusion. In this system, we focused on ensuring that the movement of the fingers in the image matched the real hand position, and provided simultaneous haptic stimuli. After the study was completed, we discovered that the kinesthetic illusion is intensified when complex movement is converted from simple movement by an external force. In the present paper we report the prototype device that we developed.
Fig. 1

Example of conversion

2 Concept

The conceptual basis of the design is that conversion from simple movements to complex movements creates a sense of agency. In the example shown in Fig. 1, the user is folding his/her finger (1). The device then converts this one-way action into an oscillation (2, 3), giving the user the illusion of controlling the bending and stretching of the finger (4). This is a form of kinesthetic illusion. One difference form conventional kinesthetic illusions is that this illusion requires only a low level voluntary movement, as it combines an active motion and a passive motion. This was discussed in our previous research. As the previous work, we developed a ball-rotation system that is able to induce a kinesthetic illusion using visual and haptic stimuli. Figure 2 shows the system. The device displays a ball-rotation video at the same time as a ball-rotation movement. In addition, holding the balls lightly increases the vividness of the illusion. In this case, the device changes the experience from grasping to ball-rotation. We focused on this conversion process and developed a device that emphasizes this aspect of the illusion.
Fig. 2

Ball-rotation system (previous work)

3 Prototype Device

In this study, we developed a prototype device that converts a simple movement into a complex movement (Fig. 3), by converting a grasping action into the experience of pushing and releasing valves, as if playing a trumpet. Although the user is merely grasping the device, it provides the illusion of controlling the motion of all the fingers.
Fig. 3

Prototype device



This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16H03210.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hirokazu Minowa
    • 1
  • Kentaro Baba
    • 1
  • Masamichi Sakaguchi
    • 1
  1. 1.Nagoya Institute of TechnologyNagoyaJapan

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