Engaging Teachers in Lifelong Learning in Oman for Knowledge Growth and Development: Government Roles and Higher Institutions



Lifelong learning (LLL) remains widely discussed in today literature as a mechanism to keep updated with the latest information and knowledge. Engaging in LLL is a necessity for teachers to stay current, alerted with the changes in education, and remain on the cutting edge in the field of teaching. To keep up with new developments, it takes courage and self-determination to continue learning. Through teacher professional development (TPD), continuous learning and improvement can take place via professional training, workshops, conferences and personal reading to upgrade teaching skills, content knowledge and classroom teaching practices. Teachers are believed and empirically proven to influence student achievement. As far as student achievement is concerned, teachers’ continuous learning and constant improvement are inevitable. Again, studies have evidenced that teacher engagement in continuous learning benefits both teaching and learning. Inasmuch as TPD is considered as a vehicle for teacher improvement, teacher engagement in lifelong learning (LLL) can be perceived as a driver that drives that particular vehicle where new knowledge and skills are obtained. Besides, when teachers involve in LLL, this helps them to develop continuous learning mind-set and habit which as a result will facilitate innovation and creativity among teachers. It prepares teachers with the assistance of continuous training to face the challenges, and keeps teachers up to date on new research and methods of teaching twenty-first-century learners using new technology to enrich teaching as well as facilitate learning in the classroom. With this scenario, this research sets out to explore the level of teacher engagement in lifelong learning activities in Sultanate of Oman. Besides, it aims of identifying government and educational institutions roles in Oman in empowering teachers towards lifelong learning for continuous professional development (CPD) for best practices. Some empirical data were collected from teachers’ lived-experiences about LLL for TPD in Oman. The findings are expected to play a pivotal role in urging Omani government and educational institutions to create a learning environment in which teachers and students becoming lifelong learners as well as where developing cultural learning mind-sets can be nurtured. It is envisaged that the findings will emphasize the need of government and education institutions’ roles in fostering lifelong learning among teachers throughout their lives.


Professional Development Educational Institution Lifelong Learning Professional Learning Continuous Professional Development 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ahmad, A. (2012). Thousand in adult education in UAE let down by teaching standards. The National, UAE. Retrieved from
  2. Al-Balushi, S., & Griffiths, D. (2013). The school education system in the Sultanate of Oman. In G. Donn & Y. Al-Manthri (Eds.), Education in the broader middle east: Borrowing a baroque arsenal. UK: Symposium Books Ltd.Google Scholar
  3. Al-Busaidi, M. S., Al Harthy, Z., & Al-Riyamia, S. (2013). School curricula in Oman: Developing the 21st century skills. Education and 21st century Competencies Symposium, September 23. Omani Daily Observer. Retrieved from
  4. Al-Busaidi, S., & Tuzlukova, V. (2014). Local perspectives on teacher professional development: Targeting policy and practice. Asian Journal of Management Sciences & Education, 3(4), 74–84.Google Scholar
  5. Al-Harthy, Z. S., Hussien, S., & Al Harth, H. K. (2014). Improving interactive teaching strategies: Action research with a life skills teacher in Oman. IIUM Journal of Educational Studies, 2(1), 12–32.Google Scholar
  6. Al-Jadidi, S. A. (2009). Teaching english as a foreign language in Oman: An exploration of english language teaching pedagogy in tertiary Education. Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. School of Education. Faculty of Arts. Victoria University Melbourne, Australia.
  7. Al-Jardani, K. S. S. (2012). A study of educational reform & teacher training in Oman. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 1(1), 64–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Al-Lamki, N. (2009). The beliefs and practices related to continuous professional development of teachers of English in Oman. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Leeds University, UK.Google Scholar
  9. Al Riyami, T. (2015). Reflection: Is it a promising or spurious tool for teachers’ professional development? International Journal of Bilingual & Multilingual Teachers of English, 3(1), 48–58.Google Scholar
  10. Al-Yahmadi, H. H. (2012). Teacher performance evaluation in Oman as perceived by evaluators. International Journal of Education, 1(11), 741–747.Google Scholar
  11. Amzat, I. H., & Al-Neimi, R. K. R. (2014). Teachers’ turnover and their job satisfaction at basic education school in some regions in Oman: Structural equation modelling approach. International Journal of Management in Education., 8(1), 78–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Andersson, T., & Djeflat, A. (2013). The real issues of the Middle East and the Arab Spring: Addressing research. Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baporikar, N., & Shah, I. A. (2012). Quality of higher education in 21st century a case study of Oman. Journal of Educational and Instructional Studies, 2(2), 9–18.Google Scholar
  14. Barber, M., Mourshed, M., & Whelan, F. (2007). Improving education in the Gulf. The McKinsey Quarterly. Retrieved from
  15. Barth, R. (2005). Turning book burners into lifelong learners. In R. DuFour, R. Eaker, & R. DuFour (Eds.), On common ground: The power of professional learning communities (pp. 115–133). Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.Google Scholar
  16. Barros, R., Moneiro, A., Nejmediie, F., & Moreira, A. J. (2013). The relationship between students’ approach to learning and lifelong learning. Psychology, 4(11), 792–797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boyd, S. (2005). Teachers as lifelong learners. A paper presented NZARE, Dunedin. Retrieved from
  18. Chapman, D. W., Al-Barwani, T., Al Mawali, F., & Green, G. (2012). Ambivalent journey: Teacher career paths in Oman. International Review of Education, 58(3), 387–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen, J. C., McGaughey, K., & Lord, S. M. (2012). “Measuring Students’ Propensity for Lifelong Learning”, Australasian Association for Engineering Education (AAEE) Annual Conference, December 2012. Victoria, Australia: Melbourn.Google Scholar
  20. Coolahan, J. (2002). Teacher education and the teaching career in an era of lifelong learning. Paris: OECD.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Creswell, J. W. (2005). Educational research: Planning, conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  22. Dohmen, G. (1999). The future of continuing education in Europe. Bonn, Germany: German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.Google Scholar
  23. Dore, L. (2005). A nation of smart is becoming a reality in the GCC[Electronic Version] Khaleej Times Online. Retrieved from:
  24. Fenwick, T. J. (2001, May). Foster teacher’s lifelong learning through professional growth plans: A cautious recommendation for policy. Teacher Education/Education Training: Current Trends and Future Directions. Symposium conducted at the Pan-Canadian Education Research Agenda Symposium, Laval University, Quebec City.Google Scholar
  25. Fischer, G. (1999). Lifelong Learning: Changing Mindsets. 7th International Conference on Computers in Education on “New Human Abilities for the Networked Society(ICCE’99, Chiba, Japan). G. Cumming, T. Okamoto and L. Gomez. Omaha, IOS Press: 21–30.Google Scholar
  26. Helterbran, R. V. (2005). Lifelong learning: A stratagem for new teachers. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 9(4). Retrieved from
  27. Hussin, S., & Al Abri, S. (2015). Professional development needs of school principals in the context of educational reform. International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies., 7(4), 90–97.Google Scholar
  28. Jarvis, P. (2010). Inquiry journal of lifelong education. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 29, 397–400. doi: 10.1080/02601370.2010.488802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kassemi, I. (2014). Muscat global meeting calls for a strong education goal in the development agenda for post-2015. UNESCO. Retrieved from
  30. Kirby, J., Knapper, C., Lamon, P., & Egnatoff, W. (2010). Development of a scale to measure lifelong education. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 29(3), 291–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Knapper, C. (2006). Lifelong learning means effective and sustainable learning; reasons, ideas, concrete measures. CIEA. A paper presented in the 25th International Course on Vocational Training and Education in Agriculture. Retrieved from
  32. Laal, M., & Salamati, P. (2012). Lifelong learning; Why do we need it? Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 31(2012), 399–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mammert, L. (2010). Learning is the future of Oman. Middle East Online. Published, 2010-10-26. Retrieved from
  34. Ministry of Education. (2008). Minister of Education Congratulates Teachers on Teachers Day. Retrieved from
  35. Ministry of Education. (2008). Inclusive education in the Sultanate of Oman. National Report Presented at the 48th Session of the International Conference of Education, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  36. Mohammadi, E. P. (2016). Call to stem high student dropout rate in Oman. Times of Oman. January 8, 2016. Retrieved
  37. MuscatDaily Online. (2013). Teachers matter: Teaching in the sultanate’s schools. November 18. Retrieved from
  38. Oman Observer. (2013). Education and 21st century Competencies Symposium delves on learning. Oman daily Observer. Monday 23rd, September. Retrieved from
  39. Preece, J. (2011). Research in adult education and lifelong learning in the era of CONFINTEA VI. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 30(1), 99–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Reuter, C., & Patecka, A. (2011). EU Lifelong Learning Policy Framework. Solidar.
  41. Sales, G., Al-Barwani, T., & Miske, S. (2008). Prospects and challenges of an online teacher training project in Oman. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology., 4(1), 120–130.Google Scholar
  42. Shah, Y. S. (2014). Lifelong Learning in India: A Policy Perspective. ASEM Education and Research Hub for Lifelong Learning. Retrieved from
  43. UNESCO. (2010). Relatório global sobre aprendizagem e educação de adultos. Brasília: Instituto da UNESCO para a Aprendizagem ao Lon- go da Vida (UIL).Google Scholar
  44. UNESCO. (2010–2011). World Data on Education. International Bureau of Education. Retreived from
  45. Wiseman, A. W., & Anderson, E. (2015). A cross-nation comparison of ICT resources and science teacher’s professional development in and use of ICT in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries. In N. Mansour & S. Al-Shamrani (Eds.), Science education in the Arab Gulf States. Springer.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Education and Modern LanguagesUniversiti Utara MalaysiaSintokMalaysia
  2. 2.Institute of Lifelong LearningUniversity of NizwaNizwaOman
  3. 3.Universitas Dr. Soetomo (UNITOMO)SurabayaIndonesia
  4. 4.Oman Tourism CollegeMuscatOman

Personalised recommendations