• Sweety Agrawal
  • Mohd Ashraf Ganie
  • Sobia Nisar


  • Aetiopathogenesis and histopathology of gynaecomastia

  • Physiological gynaecomastia

  • Gynaecomastia and breast cancer

  • Principles of diagnostic evaluation and management

Gynaecomastia is defined as an enlargement of the male breast glandular tissue. Gynaecomastia is common and may be seen in up to two-thirds of all adult men (Nuttall 1979; Carlson 1980; Georgiadis et al. 1994). There are no well-defined clinical thresholds to describe gynaecomastia. Various authors have used varying definitions ranging from 0.5 to 3 cm of palpable glandular tissue. Gynaecomastia must be differentiated from lipomastia or pseudogynaecomastia, which is characterized by an increase in subareolar fat alone in the absence of glandular enlargement. To differentiate gynaecomastia from pseudogynaecomastia, the subareolar tissue is compared with adjacent subcutaneous fat in the anterior axillary fold. In true gynaecomastia, a firm mound of tissue is palpable which is concentric with the areola (Braunstein 2007). Gynaecomastia may be unilateral, bilateral or asymmetric. Although most cases of gynaecomastia are benign, it can be a sign of underlying systemic disease.


Gynaecomastia Pseudogynaecomastia Hypogonadism Klinefelter syndrome 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sweety Agrawal
    • 1
  • Mohd Ashraf Ganie
    • 1
  • Sobia Nisar
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Endocrinology and MetabolismAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Geriatric MedicineAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia

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