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Impact of Agricultural Management Practices on Mycorrhizal Functioning and Soil Microbiological Parameters Under Soybean-Based Cropping Systems

  • Richa Agnihotri
  • Aketi Ramesh
  • Shardendhu Singh
  • Mahaveer P. SharmaEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The use of modern agricultural techniques for enhanced production has been advocated, however, its impact on below ground microbial networks is overlooked and adversely affected. The abiotic stresses like temperature (heat, cold chilling/frost), water (drought, flooding/hypoxia), radiation (UV, ionizing radiation), chemicals (mineral deficiency/excess, pollutants heavy metals/pesticides, gaseous toxins), mechanical (wind, soil movement, submergence) are responsible for over 50% reduction in agricultural production. On the other hand, organic farming practices yield fruitful results. This has highlighted the emerging need of switching over to some eco-friendly agricultural practices which can enhance the growth of plant, improve soil quality, mitigate drought without having adverse impacts on environment. Rhizosphere which is the narrow zone surrounding the roots of plant (Hiltner 1904) contains microbial communities which have the potential to benefit plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are obligate symbionts which form association with about 90% of the land plant species (Gadkar et al. 2001). However, agricultural practices like tillage, crop rotation, fallowing, organic farming, fertilizers, etc., influence the functioning of AMF in many ways. Soybean is rich in phytochemicals that are beneficial for human beings. The inoculation of soybean and some other crops including cereals, pulses, and other leguminous crops with AMF leads to an enhancement in abiotic stress tolerance, disease resistance, overall growth, soil carbon sequestration, nutrient uptake, etc. This chapter summarizes the overall impact of different agricultural practices on mycorrhiza and other soil microbial communities under soybean-based cropping system.

Keywords

Agricultural practices Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Soybean Soil microbial communities 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Director, ICAR-Directorate of Soybean Research, Indore for providing the necessary facilities. Funding from National Programme of CO2 sequestration research, DST, New Delhi project to MPS and JRF to RA is gratefully acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richa Agnihotri
    • 1
    • 2
  • Aketi Ramesh
    • 1
  • Shardendhu Singh
    • 2
  • Mahaveer P. Sharma
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.ICAR-Indian Institute of Soybean Research (ICAR-IISR)IndoreIndia
  2. 2.Crop Systems and Global Change Laboratory, United States Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS)BeltsvilleUSA

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