Development of Nano-Antimicrobial Biomaterials for Biomedical Applications

  • Shekhar Agnihotri
  • Navneet Kaur Dhiman
Part of the Advanced Structured Materials book series (STRUCTMAT, volume 66)


Around the globe, there is a great concern about controlling growth of pathogenic microorganisms for the prevention of infectious diseases. Moreover, the greater incidences of cross contamination and overuse of drugs has contributed towards the development of drug resistant microbial strains making conditions even worse. Hospital acquired infections pose one of the leading complications associated with implantation of any biomaterial after surgery and critical care. In this regard, developing non-conventional antimicrobial agents which would prevent the aforementioned causes is under the quest. The rapid development in nanoscience and nanotechnology has shown promising potential for developing novel biocidal agents that would integrate with a biomaterial to prevent bacterial colonization and biofilm formation. Metals with inherent antimicrobial properties such as silver, copper, zinc at nano scale constitute a special class of antimicrobials which have broad spectrum antimicrobial nature and pose minimum toxicity to humans. Hence, novel biomaterials that inhibit microbial growth would be of great significance to eliminate medical device/instruments associated infections. This chapter comprises the state-of-art advancements in the development of nano-antimicrobial biomaterials for biomedical applications. Several strategies have been targeted to satisfy few important concern such as enhanced long term antimicrobial activity and stability, minimize leaching of antimicrobial material and promote reuse. The proposed strategies to develop new hybrid antimicrobial biomaterials would offer a potent antibacterial solution in healthcare sector such as wound healing applications, tissue scaffolds, medical implants, surgical devices and instruments.


Antimicrobial biomaterial Immobilization Nanocomposites Silver nanoparticles Metal nanoparticles Biomedical coatings Surface modification Hydrogel Cytotoxicity Carbon nanotubes Implant Wound healing Tissue scaffold 

List of Abbreviations


Two dimensional


Three dimensional


Human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line


Anti bacterial




Silver nanoparticles




Biomaterial assisted infection


Human normal bronchial epithelial cells


Calcium alginate-cotton cellulose


Colony forming units


Carboxymethyl chitosan


Carbon nanoscrolls


Carbon nanotubes


Chitosan nanoparticles


Copper nanoparticles


Copper oxide nanoparticles


Degree of deacetylation


Gold nanoparticles


Graphene oxide




Human keratinocyte


Hospital acquired infections


Human hepatoma cells


Hybrid nanocomposite


Halloysite nanotubes


Inter-penetrating network




Minimum bactericidal concentration


Multiple drug resistance


Minimum inhibitory concentration


Multiple-walled carbon nanotubes




Not Determined




Nanosilicate platelets




Quaternary ammonium chitosan derivative nanoparticles


Reduced grapheme oxide


Reactive oxygen species


Single-walled carbon nanotubes


Transmission electron microscopy


US environmental protection agency


Vancomycin resistant Enterococci


Zinc oxide


Zone of inhibition


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyThapar UniversityPatialaIndia

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